Olee otú ụmụ mmadụ ga-emeri Mars na karịrị

How humans will conquer Mars and beyond

 

Kwadoro site na Guardian.co.ukIsiokwu a na-akpọ “Olee otú ụmụ mmadụ ga-emeri Mars na karịrị” e dere site Kevin Fong, n'ihi na The Observer on Sunday 13 December 2015 08.30 UTC

N'afọ a Royal Institution si Christmas okwu anya na ihe ịma aka nke ụmụ mmadụ ohere ụgbọ elu na ihe ọ na-ewe iji tụọ mmadụ n'ime ikpeazụ n'ókè on njem ụgbọ mmiri nke ngagharị.

Dị ka dọkịta m nọrọ ihe karịrị afọ iri ejegharị ejegharị n'azụ pụta n'etiti UK na Nasa si Johnson Space Center na Houston, -arụ ọrụ dị ka a na ịga na-eme nchọpụta na oru ngo sitere na site n'ịmụ mmetụta nke ohere gburugburu ebe obibi na merela agadi physiology ka aka wuru nnukwu mpo usoro. N'otu oge m na-emecha m keobere ọgwụ ọzụzụ ná Nkụnwụ na ọzụzụ kpụ ọkụ n'ọnụ na-elekọta. Ọ bụ iberibe agbalị splice ndị abụọ ndụ ọnụ. Arụ ọrụ na ọzụzụ kpụ ọkụ n'ọnụ na-elekọta unit n'otu ntabi anya, -aga ọdụ ụgbọ elu na njedebe nke nnofega, grabbing ụfọdụ na-ehi ụra na ụgbọelu, na mgbe ahụ na-alọta echi na a nzukọ ụlọ na Houston, ebe ndị mmadụ nọ ala gburugburu na-ekwu banyere otú iziga ndị mmadụ n'enweghị ka Mars.

Ma ihe a jikọrọ abụọ bụ ihe ịma aka nke ndụ na ókè. N'ụlọ ọgwụ m na-achọ na ókè nke ndụ mgbe aka, ọrịa na mmerụ. Na Nasa m na-achọ na nke iguzogide iyi egwu ụmụ mmadụ physiology site ókè nke ụwa nkịtị na eluigwe na ala.

Mgbe anyị na-ekwurịta banyere oké gburugburu anyị nwere ike inwe a ike ike echiche nke ha austerity site ekpe ikpe ole ha ga na-akwado ndụ mmadụ unprotected na unsupported. Site na ụfọdụ ohere bụ kacha oké: iche keiro mmadụ physiology, ọ na-enye adịghị akwado maka ndụ mmadụ ra, bú. The unprotected ohere njem ga-alanarị na na gburugburu ebe obibi nanị ole na ole Sekọnd.

Ị pụrụ iche n'echiche na a ga-ejupụta maka a dọkịta ime - na mgbe ọ na-abịa mmadụ ohere ngagharị, ndị na-aghọta na ike ịgbanwe ihe mmadụ physiology ga-abụ na-ebute ụzọ na mgbalị. Ma ọgwụ ndị dọkịta na-egwu a ogbenye nke abụọ omume ugha ihe karịrị a omenala engineering - nwekwara ezi ihe kpatara.

Space ụgbọ elu bụ na anụ ahụ ụkpụrụ disarmingly mfe. Otú ahụ dị mfe na eziokwu na Newton amalitela ịghọta Ọnọdụ na underpin ọ fọrọ nke nta 400 afọ ndị gara aga. Na-ahapụ Earth na-abanye na onye na orbit gburugburu ya, ị kwesịrị ibu ụzọ atụfu ihe gafee n'ụwa otú ike na ya trajectory bụghị naanị Ụwa horizons - otú ike na ọ ga-mere-ada n'ụzọ dị otú ahụ na ọ dịghị ọzọ okụt n'ala.

Na otú itinye ihe n'ime orbit gburugburu Earth ị ga-enye ya nnukwu ego nke ike. Na obosara okwu ndị ngwa ngwa ị na-aga na wider okirikiri nke orbit gị aka imeta; iji nweta a ụgbọala iji nweta ihe orbit mbara iji na-enweta ya na-atụ uche ma ndị Earth na elu n'ígwé nke ikuku, ebe ị n'otu elu dị ka International Space Station ụfọdụ 250 kilomita n'elu anyị, gị mkpa ime njem dị gburugburu 17,500mph.

Na-achọ a ụgbọala propelled site engines na mmanụ ụgbọala tankị na-agbawa agbawa ike nke a obere ngwá agha nuklia. a njem, si elu nke Earth n'ime ala Earth orbit - n'ụgbọ ahụ ka Soyuz ugboelu - ewe obere n'elu asatọ nkeji. Na otú ihe mere na omenala na Nasa, na ohere ụlọ ọrụ gafee ụwa, na otú ịgbanyesi mkpọrọgwụ ike na-achọ n'aka engineering kama ndị mmadụ eke bụ n'ihi na na nkenke ma ihe ike oge e nwere fọrọ nke nta ihe ọ bụla nkà mmụta ọgwụ ọgbara nwere ike enye n'ụzọ nke nchebe. n'oge na igba egbe, ma ndị injinịa na-arụ ọrụ na onye ọ bụla ndụ, ma ọ bụ ọ na-adịghị onye ọ bụla na-ala n'iyi.

Na ichebe ndụ mmadụ nile igba egbe-adabere ọ bụghị n'elu usoro ọgwụgwọ ma na concentric n'ígwé nke wuru nchedo ndị injinia imewe na-ewu na swaddle na mbara igwe crews na.

Rọketi engines ga-ọkụ n'ụzọ zuru okè, anapụta nnọọ ekwesị nzube naanị nri oge, eduzi kpọmkwem ụzọ ziri ezi. The ezigbo ike nke na propulsion ekwesịghị ikwe ka ịma jijiji na ụgbọala, ya usoro ma ọ bụ ya na-emebi emebi ibu nke njem iche. Ọ bụ ọrụ nke injinịa ìgwè iji jide n'aka na obubata na ụgbọala na-e-arụ na ihu nke ikike ndị na-agbalị ibibi ha.

Na n'elu ugwu atop na ụlọ elu kerosin na oxygen bụ obere Capsule, na olu nke a ọgụgụ dị nta nke ekwentị igbe, na a di na nwunye nke tonnes nke onunu na atọ njem kwabara n'etiti ha. Na Capsule bụ obere afụ nke ndụ support, pinched anya n'ebe ndị Earth na nọgidere na-enwe artificially. Inside, ka ihe ígwè ọrụ na-enye a breathable ikuku na a kpagbuo ma ịhụnanya na-akwado ndụ na chakoo nke ohere. Ọ bụrụ na ị na-adị ndụ na igba egbe, nsogbu gị na-n'ezie nanị na-amalite amalite.

Chris hadfield na iss
High table: Chris Hadfield eri na efu nnukwu mpo n'ụgbọ ahụ ka International Space Station. Foto: on

International Space Station

Ọ bụ ịkwali mmadụ iche nke International Space Station dị ka a hi-tech Big Nwanna ụlọ, -ese n'elu mmiri Earth. Na ụfọdụ uche ziri ezi nke ahụ bụ eziokwu: Ọnọdụ ibi ndụ aka ike site ọ bụla nkịtị ọkọlọtọ. E nwere ole na ole e kere eke ntụsara ahụ na oké ọnụ ahịa nta nzuzo. Ọ na-a bi ndokwa bristling na ikike nke inwe nnukwu na-elekọta mmadụ esemokwu. Ma n'ụzọ dị ịrịba ama nke na-n'ụzọ dị ukwuu ẹse na na 15 afọ nke ọrụ na e nwere ndidi enweghị chụpụrụ n'ụlọ.

Ma ISS karịrị otu ulo ngọngọ. Mgbe crews gaa biri n'ebe ahụ ka ha na-ewere biri n'ime a igwe n'elu nke ndụ ha dabeere ọ bụla nke abụọ nke ụbọchị. Ha electrolyse mmiri iji mepụta oxygen, jiri molekụla sieves ka sikrob n'efu aputa, oga ewee nke ikuku na ha ume, -agba ọsọ kpo oku usoro si sara anyanwụ arrays nke nwere ike imipu si 80kW nke ike. Na anyanwụ ike na-akpali anọ dị ukwuu gyroscopes, nke otu ebe ma nyara ojii, -egbochi ya tumbling ahụ ókè.

The International Space Station dị anya n'ebe anyị nọkwa: ọ hums na whines ruo mgbe niile; Fans na-agba mgbe niile. -Enweghị ike ndọda na-ekpo ọkụ ikuku adịghị bilie, na-oyi na-atụ ntụ dịghị ekpu. Enwere, dị ka a na ya pụta, ọ dịghị convection na-enweghị na ọ bụ ike iji nweta ikuku ime ka ọ bụ mix. Na n'aka nke na-akpata nsogbu, ahapụ astronauts ewekarị isi ọwụwa na-agụghị oké ventilated ebe, ebe exhaled carbon dioxide nwere ike iru elu. N'ihi ya mgbe nile drum nke Motors Afọ agbarụwo ikuku. The drafts na ISS, ka fọrọ nke nta ka ihe ọ bụla ọzọ na crews adabere maka ike ndụ, bụ aka wuru. All mgbalị a dị nnọọ ịnọgide na-enwe na afụ nke ndụ support na-eche nche dị nnọọ 250 kilomita n'elu isi-ayi. NSOGBU NDỊ bụ ndi luru agha na anyị na-adịghị ọbụna malitere ikwu okwu banyere ahapụ ala Earth orbit ma.

Back na ọnwa

E nwere ahụkarị uko azụmahịa na ọnwa. Ọ fọrọ nke nta ọkara otu narị afọ kemgbe Apollo omume rutere a iri na abuo ikom on ya elu. Na mgbe ọ na-anọchi anya a akpọrọ trove nke nkà mmụta sayensị na ọ chọpụtara, ọ dịghị onye nwere kemgbe azụ ebe ọ bụ na. Low Earth orbit bụ 250 kilomita na a pụrụ iji rute na nkeji. Ọnwa na-banyere 250,000 kilomita, -ewe ụbọchị na-esi na, na mgbakwunye na-akpa iche na kwukwara mgbagwoju anya nke rọketi sayensị chọrọ, doo crews nnọọ ngwangwa radieshon. Na Ụwa anyị na-echebe site na ụfọdụ ụdị nke radieshon n'akuku oké blanket nke ikuku n'elu, nke na-amịkọrọ gamma ka ụzarị, x-ụzarị na ultraviolet radieshon a gaara agụrụ emerụ. Ma e nwere ihe ọzọ oyi akwa nke nchebe na-emekwa ka anyị dị mma: Ụwa magnetik ubi.

The magnetosphere nzà si a tumadi na umu nke radieshon, nke na-abịa n'ụdị ebubo, elu-ike ahụ - atọm nuclei ẹtọ dị ka a na-eweta ite Jeremaya mere na kpakpando gụnyere anyị onwe anyị. Nke a na ụdị radieshon bụ karịsịa emerụ na, n'oge anyanwụ na-ewetụ, nwere ike na abawanye na osisi ike nke ọtụtụ puku ugboro. Ugbu esi ezigbo n'ụzọ dị irè-echebe site na radieshon na-abịa na ndị kasị njọ anyanwụ na-ewetụ.

Mars na karịrị

Na-adịbeghị anya echiche nke etinye mmadụ crews n'elu ihe ọzọ karịa ọnwa ma ọ bụ Mars hụrụ ya ụzọ n'ime atụmatụ akwụkwọ nke mba ohere ụlọ ọrụ. Nke a ozi bụ obere akụkọ sayensị emeghị eme ka ị pụrụ iche. The European Space Agenecy si Rosetta ozi, nke mere spectacularly rutere na Philae lander n'elu a komeeti afọ gara aga, showed us that we could find and intercept a tiny target hurtling through space hundreds of billions of miles away. This has given agencies confidence that their idea of landing a human crew on an asteroid might be realisable.

But for now it is Mars that lies at the edge of possibility, and surviving that journey presents a challenge on a different scale. With Mars, the problem is distance and time. To get to the red planet you have to traverse hundreds of millions of interplanetary miles; karịrị 1,000 times the distance Apollo crews travelled to the moon. With existing technology it would take between six and nine months to travel from Earth to Mars and the same again on the return leg.

That’s a lot of time spent without any gravitational load on your body. Weightlessness may look like fun, but like everything else, too much of it can be a bad thing. When physiologists first considered what effect the space environment might have on the human body, before anybody had even been into space, they correctly predicted that muscle and bone would waste. Those systems are sculpted by gravity and as anyone who has ever so much as looked at a gym knows, if you don’t use it you lose it. Because of this, crews aboard the International Space Station must subject themselves to a daily programme of resistive exercise to try and prevent some of that bone and muscle loss.

the surface of mars
Was there life on Mars? Dark streaks on the planet’s surface which seem to indicate the presence of flowing water. Foto: Nasa/Reuters

Weightlessness wreaks havoc with other systems. It upsets your senses of balance and co-ordination, making it more difficult for crew members to track moving targets, creating illusions of motion and, for the first few days of flight, generally making them feel pretty queasy. With the exception of the nausea, all of these problems tend to get worse the longer you spend weightless.

More na nso nso, new – and potentially more worrying – problems have cropped up. For reasons that are not yet entirely clear the pressure in some astronauts’ brains appears to rise as a consequence of space flight, and this has been linked to alterations in their eyesight that sometimes persist for many years after their return to Earth. This phenomenon has only been noticed after long duration missions, which highlights the message: spending a lot of time in space isn’t great for your health.

But time also creates problems for life support systems. If you imagine the amount of food, water, oxygen and power a single person might consume in a mission set to last up to three years (if you include the surface stay), that demands quite a sizable larder. Now multiply that by a crew of four or six and it looks like you need an impossibly huge spacecraft just to keep you fed and watered.

And that does become impossible unless you are able to recycle and reuse everything you can. Already aboard the space station astronauts recycle most of their waste water, including their urine. They scrub carbon dioxide out of their exhaled air and rebreathe the remaining oxygen. You might be able to go further still, by growing crops hydroponically, as a source of food and a mechanism of removing carbon dioxide and renewing the oxygen supply. If you choose the right plants you might even recycle the nitrogen in human solid waste. Which of course is a scientific way of saying that maybe you could use your own poo to fertilise your life-supporting crops.

A system as sophisticated as that is extremely difficult to assemble, manage and maintain, and it’s likely to be a while before we see greenhouses flying through deep space. For now life support engineers will content themselves with finding ways to recycle more and more of the resources they can, and in so doing reducing the amount of payload that crews have to set aside for the things that keep them alive.

There is a simple lesson from all of this: space is hard. All frontier endeavours are. But there is plenty to celebrate here. Since the start of the 21st century there has been a permanent human presence in space. What started as a surrogate battlefield for nuclear war has become a multinational programme of science, exploration and collaboration. This is not the place to get into a discussion of why we should explore space at all. There are many benefits that derive from human space exploration but one is more important than all the rest. Human space exploration inspires children to study and pursue careers in science, technology and engineering. It does so by showing them that within the limits of human imagination anything might be possible. I know this because it inspired me and throughout the whole of my life has continued to hold my fascination.

It is an enormous honour to give the Royal Institution’s Christmas Lectures. And yes, the take-home message is that space is hard. But the real lesson for this year’s audience is that this has been my adventure and it can be yours too.

How to Survive in Space will be shown on BBC4 in three parts on 28, 29 na 30 December at 8pm. Find out more on the Royal Institution’s website and join the conversation on Twitter and Instagram by following @ri_science or searching for #xmaslectures

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