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Everything You Need to Know about Gravitational Waves

N'agbanyeghị na asịrị ahụ a US Observatory ga gwa on Thursday na ha achọpụtala ihe àmà nke ndọda ebili mmiri, ebe a bụ isi ihe ọmụma


Kwadoro site na Guardian.co.ukIsiokwu a na-akpọ “Ekiri ihe a spacetime: Ike ndọda efegharị efegharị chọpụtara atụ anya” e dere site Ian ịlele Science nchịkọta akụkọ, n'ihi na The Guardian on Tuesday usen 9 February 2016 15.59 UTC

A ọtụtụ iri afọ e search maka ndọda ebili mmiri na-atụ anya na-akwụsị mmeri a izu mgbe ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị na-ekwupụta na ha chọpụtara-atọ ndị na-akpa ákwà nke spacetime, ikekwe kere site nkukota nke abụọ oke ojii oghere njem na nso ọsọ nke ìhè.

Mbụ buru amụma site Einstein, na N'ịbụ ndị kasị ọdachi ndị na cosmos, Ike ndọda ebili mmiri gbatịa na piakota ohere na niile n'ime ya ka ha na-agbasa gafee eluigwe na ala. ha chọpụtara, ma ọ bụrụ na enen, doro anya bụ na irite a Nobel chọr'inwe.

Ọkà mmụta sayensị ejide maka ihe ịrịba ama nke mmiri na ebili mmiri ruo ọtụtụ iri afọ, ma ruo ugbu a, ha mgbalị e nkụda mmụọ site ụgha n'ókè na ngwá na-adịghị enwe mmetụta ọsọ ọsọ iji chọpụta ebili mmiri site na mgbe ha ruru Earth.

Na-atụ anya na-agbanwe on Thursday, mgbe ọmụmụ physics na US na-ekpughe ha ọhụrụ data site na nnwale a maara dị LIGO, ma ọ bụ ndị Advanced Laser Interferometer ndọda-Wave Observatory. The otu nwere ziri ke Washington na Louisiana nwere ike ịnọ na-agafe ndọda ebili mmiri site na minuscule mgbanwe n'ogologo na ha na abụọ 4km-ogologo ọkpọkọ.

Na a pịa ogbako ke Washington, LIGO ọkà mmụta sayensị na-atụ anya na-ekpughe a doo anya, doro nnọọ anya ndọda efegharị efegharị mgbaàmà. Ọ nwere ike ịbụ abụọ buru ibu nwa oghere, otu 29 ugboro ọzọ oke karịa anyanwụ, nke ọzọ 36 ugboro ọzọ oke, agbasa n'ọtụtụ gburugburu bụla ọzọ na n'ikpeazụ n'iyi ọnụ na-etolite ọhụrụ oghere ojii 62 ugboro uka nke anyanwụ. Nile dị na ya heft, ọhụrụ ahụ nwere ike ịbụ ọ dịghị ihe karịrị 200 kilomita n'obosara.

The efu uka – Ẹkot na nke atọ suns, ma ọ bụ isii puku ijeri puku ijeri kilotonnes – e converted n'ime ike na tọhapụrụ dị ka ndọda ebili mmiri LIGO kweere na ahụrụ.

"Ndị mmadụ na-hugely obi ụtọ. The rumo bụ na ọ a whopping nnukwu mgbaàmà, yabụ, ọ bụ doro nnọọ anya, na nke ahụ bụ kediegwu,"Kwuru Pedro Ferreira, prọfesọ nke astrophysics na Oxford University, na-ede akwụkwọ nke 2014 akwụkwọ, The zuru okè Theory: a narị afọ nke mmụta pụrụ iche na agha n'elu n'ozuzu relativity.

Mgbe Einstein bipụtara ozizi nke n'ozuzu relativity na 1915, ọ gbanwere kpamkpam otú ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị banyere eluigwe na ala. Tiori gosiri na uka na-eme ka spacetime usoro, mmetụta ahụ nke nwere ìgwè ndị pụtara. One, na ìhè si ebe dị anya kpakpando ga-ehulata anyanwụ gburugburu, na-egosi na Arthur Eddington n'oge akpata chi iji n'ehihie nke 1919.

Nchọpụta nke ndọda ebili mmiri ga-nne Mmetụta anya ikpeazụ isi amụma nke n'ozuzu relativity. Ọ ga-egosipụta na arụmarụ haziri site Einstein, na-ekweghị na ha kweere na nwa oghere onwe ya, jide ezi na ihe kwubara otutu dị ka ndị kasị sie n'ógbè nke physics.

Ma e nwere ihe ọzọ na nchọpụta nke ndọda ebili mmiri karịrị nanị egosi ha na-adị. Ọ bụrụ na ndị LIGO mgbaàmà dị ike dị ka asịrị na-atụ aro, ọhụrụ ngwá nwere ike wuru iji chọpụta ike ndọda ebili mmiri si colliding nwa oghere na ndị ọzọ na hugely energetic ihe nile n'eluigwe na ụwa.

"Ọ ga-adị ka nke nwere a teliskop na, kama na-achọ na akpọkwa ke akpa ụdịdị dị iche iche, na-na-ele ha na ndọda ebili mmiri,"Kwuru Ferreira. "Anyị nwere ike ịhụ ihe na a kpamkpam dị iche iche n'ụzọ. Ọ ga-abụ nnọọ bịara ikiri ọhụụ – Ike ndọda ebili mmiri na-adịghị mma na-egosi kpọmkwem ihe – ma ha ga-enyere anyị aka ịghọta ihe na-eme mgbe nwa oghere hs ịdaba ibe unu. "

"Nke bụ eziokwu bụ na mgbe ọ bụla anyị na-na-ele anya na eluigwe na ala na ụzọ ọhụrụ, na x-ụzarị, na radio ebili mmiri, anyị na-na chọpụtara ịrịba stof, exotica. Ya mere, a na-aga na-emeghe a ọhụrụ window, na n'ihi na n'aka na anyị ga-achọpụta na aru stof,"O kwukwara.

Rumours that the LIGO team had detected gravitational waves have been circulating in the astrophysics community for months. Ma many researchers were sceptical and feared the rumours might have been sparked by synthetic signals which are added to the data to test the team’s analytical procedures.

“After all the rumours over the past few months I certainly expect them to announce a detection at this point,” said Alberto Sesana, a researcher at the University of Birmingham’s Gravitational Wave Group. “We have to bear in mind that LIGO is one experiment and the only one that can detect such sources. If they claim to have detected gravitational waves, it cannot be confirmed by another instrument, and that is always an issue. But they have been very cautious in doing this properly. I’m confident they have clear and strong evidence for it.”

There is a chance a signal will be announced from another source, such as a pair of neutron stars spinning around one another, or a neutron star falling into a black hole. But such cosmic events would be expected to produce weaker signals than the large spike scientists anticipate the LIGO team to reveal.

Scientists have declared the discovery of gravitational waves before only to have their hopes dashed. Na 2014, researchers on an experiment called Bicep2 claimed to have found evidence for gravitational waves from the big bang, but further analysis by other groups showed that the signals they picked up could be entirely explained by space dust interfering with their measurements.

Ulrich Sperhake, a theorist at Cambridge University who studies how gravitational waves are generated by black holes, said the community was very excited and expectant. “ I don’t know anyone in the field who expects anything other than a detection to be announced,"Ka o kwuru. “Anything but the onset of a new era in observational gravitational astronomy would come as a major surprise on Thursday, but there remains a tiny speculative element to it until we’ll have the official LIGO announcement.”

Martin Hendry, a member of the LIGO team at Glasgow University, would not be drawn on the details of Thursday’s announcement. “I can’t say anything more at this stage than wait and see. Or should that be “watch this spacetime?"Ka o kwuru.

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