Kwadoro site na Guardian.co.ukIsiokwu a na-akpọ “Apụl: gịnị ka ị na-eme mgbe n'ịghọ ụwa kasị uru ụlọ ọrụ?” e dere site Rupert Neate na New York, n'ihi na The Observer on Saturday 31st January 2015 15.01 UTC

mgbe Apple ghọrọ ndị kasị eweta uru ụlọ ọrụ dị na akụkọ ihe mere eme urua, nnyocha siiri ya ike ịnwe ha obi ụtọ.

"Pụtara", "Pụtara ìhè", "A ogologo anụ mmiri" bụ ụfọdụ n'ime nnyocha na 'Jeremaya mere ka ọnụ ọgụgụ na-egosi na Silicon Valley ike mere $ 18bn (£ 12bn) N'ime nanị ọnwa atọ - site na-ere 34,000 iPhones otu awa gburugburu elekere site October ka December. Ọ now nwere $ 178bn ego dị n'ụlọ akụ.

Ma mgbe nile ọgba aghara, ajụjụ malitere. N'ihi na a ụlọ ọrụ na-abịa azụ na brink nke odida erughị 20 afọ ndị gara aga, ogologo oge nwere ike ozi ọma anọgide? Ebe a na-isii nnukwu ajụjụ chere ihu ụwa nnukwu ụlọọrụ ịga nke ọma.

ego, bụ nke a ọnụ ọgụgụ kasị elu?

Apple bụ 90 ụbọchị pụọ site na odida mgbe Steve Jobs lakwuuru ya na 1997- ka o mesịrị kpugheere - ma Apple now gwa nwanne ledaa ya ọgaranya n'ihu quarterly uru ọkwa iji iju investors na nnyocha.

Nke a nkeji iri na ise na uru ndị ọzọ ọnụ ọgụgụ, ezie na. Sales n'ime ọnwa atọ na njedebe nke December bụ elu 30% ka $ 74.6bn. Ndị uru nke $ 18bn iri abua na 37%.

Ọ bụ ndị kasị quarterly ibu ebe ọ bụ na March 2012, ma mgbe ahụ Apple bụ ọkara size, ọ bụ ugbu. Dị ka Apple isi ego mara, Luca Maestri, kwuru: "N'ihi na a ụlọ ọrụ anyị size na-adịghị a obere feat."

Katy Huberty, onye na nyocha na Morgan Stanley, kwuru na ọ bụ a "nkeji iri na ise maka ndekọ akwụkwọ" na ụba ya òkè price iche si $126 ka $133, -egosi na o chee na e nwere ihe uto na-abịa. The mbak, nke jumped 5% na mgbe-awa trading esonụ Apple si na ya pụta, emechi na $117 na Fraịdee.

The nnukwu ihe ịma aka now, -ekwu Geoff Blaber, osote onyeisi oche nke nnyocha maka CCS Insight, bụ ịchọta ọzọ ibu ohere. "Western Europe na n'ebe ugwu America na-aghọ jupụta: nwere ime ụlọ maka uto Apple nwere na-adabere na-ewere ibu si [Google si] Android sistemụ dabeere ngwaọrụ,"Ọ na-ekwu. "The nnukwu, nnukwu, elekwasị anya bụ na China na a nta ruo n'ókè India. "

Nnyocha na jụtara site Thomson Reuters na-atụ anya Apple si revenue n'afọ ka September na-eto eto 22%, ma ibu na-akwụsịlata na- 4% N'afọ na-esozi.

È nwere ọtụtụ ndị ọzọ ndị mmadụ hapụrụ ndị na-achọ ihe iPhone?

Apple rere a ndekọ 74.5m mobiles na nkeji iri na ise, 46% ihe karịrị na n'otu oge ahụ otu afọ tupu. "Ịnụrụ iPhone kemgbe oké ụba, gbajaa anyị atụmanya dị elu,"Isi Tim Cook kwuru. "Akwụkwọ a bụ ike ịghọta."

The igwe gua abụọ n'ụzọ atọ nke Apple si revenue, na ndị bara uru karịa Microsoft na Google si ọhụrụ quarterly ahịa jikọtara.

"Yiri ka ụwa dum na-achọ iPhone,"Steven Milunovich, onye na nyocha na UBS, dere na a dee na-investors, pụta ìhè na-eji ọkụ ama choro ọbụna ihe igwe ma Apple pụghị mepụta ha ngwa ngwa ruo mgbe na-adịbeghị anya.

Otú ọ dị, Toni Sacconaghi, onye na nyocha na Bernstein Research, adọ aka ná ntị na Apple si na-eto nwere ike ịbụ kwa-reliant na asaa afọ ngwaahịa akara. "A nzọ ke Apple na-esiwanye a nzọ na iPhone,"Sacconaghi-ekwu. "Ozi ọma ahụ bụ, iPhones dị ukwuu. The akụkọ ọjọọ bụ, ugbu a na nke ahụ na-akwọ ụgbọala n'elu 100% nke revenue ibu nke ụlọ ọrụ. "

A Chinese ahịa aka ekedep ọhụrụ abụọ iPhone 6s.
A Chinese ahịa aka ekedep ọhụrụ abụọ iPhone 6s. Foto: Johannes Eisele / AFP / Getty Images

Olee uru China?

nnọọ: iPhone ahịa na-etiwapụ na mba. Apple-egburu obodo-emeputa Xiaomi na-China kasịnụ smartphone na-ere ákwà na ise ikpeazụ. Chinese ahịa, nke ekpekememde maka Apple ruo mgbe ọ wepụtara ọhụrụ ibu na ihuenyo igwe, wee na na $ 16.1bn, elu 70% on afọ ikpeazụ - mgbe ọ na-enweghị a ndibiat enye ya ohere China Mobile si e mere atụmatụ ịbụ 760 nde ndị debanyere aha.

Ụtụ na China na-ngwa ngwa ịchụkwudo na ego ọ nakọtara na dum nke Europe, ebe ahịa ndị $ 17.2bn, elu 20%.

"Anọ m ebe ahụ [na China] nri mgbe igba egbe na October, na obi ụtọ gburugburu iPhone 6 na 6 Ọzọ [bụ] nnọọ phenomenal,"Cook kwuru n'oge ya oku na nnyocha. "Ị ga-ama na anyị na-na a nnukwu onye kwere ekwe na China."

Apple ezube okpukpu abụọ nke ọnụ ọgụgụ nke ya na-echekwa na ukwuu China na- 40 site ufọt ufọt 2016. "Ọ bụ ihe ịrịba ahịa,"Ka o kwuru. "Ndị mmadụ n'anya Apple na ngwaahịa. Na anyị na-aga ime ike anyị iji na-eje ozi na ahịa. "

Naanị otu afọ tupu, na October 2013, Apple bụ No 6 smartphone onye rụrụ ke China, trailing Xiaomi, Huawei, Lenovo, Samsung na Yulong, dị ka nnyocha ike Canalys.

"Nke a bụ ihe ịtụnanya N'ihi, nyere na nkezi n'ire price nke Apple si handsets fọrọ nke nta ka okpukpu abụọ ndị nke ya kacha nso asọmpi,"Canalys-ekwu. "Mgbe Chinese smartphone mgbere na-ngwa ngwa inweta ala mba, Apple agbanwewo tebụl on ha n'ụlọ ha ahịa. "

Nwere ike ọ imeli maka Apple Watch ada?

Ọ nọwo na afọ ise ebe ọ bụ na Apple ulo oru ya ọhụrụ n'ezie ọhụrụ ngwaahịa - na iPad - na 2010. Ibi ndụ kwekọrọ aha ya maka ọhụrụ, na diversify ụtụ n'ebe na-adabere n'ebe ndị iPhone, Apple chọrọ nke Apple Watch ịbụ onye na-erughị eru ịga nke ọma.

Cook mara ọkwa na-eche nche na-aga na-ere na April, -enye ụlọ ọrụ a agbam ume na ya atọ nkeji iri na ise mgbe ọ ga-erite uru site Christmas ma ọ bụ na Chinese na afọ ọhụrụ, nke ga-nyeere aga na uo ihe nke ise. "Anyị na-eme nnukwu ọganihu mmepe nke ọ,"Ka o kwuru.

Apple na-akọwa ọhụrụ ngwaahịa - emekarị kwuru na dị ka iWatch, ọ bụ ezie na ọ bụghị e Aha gọọmenti - dị ka "ọtụtụ ihe onwe onye ngwaọrụ ebi" na ọ na-chere na ọ ga-enwe ike inyocha ya wearer ahụ ike nakwa dị ka jikọọ na iPhone na-enye ọtụtụ ndị ọzọ ọrụ. Cook si eji ngwa mmepe ama masịrị ya na "ụfọdụ ịrịba ọhụrụ".

Carolina Milanesi na Kantar Worldpanel ComTech ekwu nche ga-enyere Apple ịgbatị ya ahịa n'ime a nnọọ wider ahịa. "Ha nwere nnọọ smart na pushing ya ka jewelery na imewe kama otú technologically smart ọ bụ,"Ọ na-ekwu. "Ha na-etinye uche karị on too anyị imewe na ejiji ụwa karịa tech-ede blọgụ.

"Echere m na nke a ga-a ọtụtụ ihe ndị ọzọ enweghị isi na ọdụ Buy karịa na iPad. Na ihe iPad na ị chọrọ iPad: a na-aga na-ọzọ nke a ejiji na nkwupụta. "

O kwuru, sị na igba egbe ga-erite uru site ejiji na ahịa nkà nke Angela Ahrendts, ndị nke mbụ Burberry onyeisi Apple goro afọ gara aga on a $ 73m akwụ ngwugwu dị ka ya isi retail.

Apple poached a eriri nke nnukwu aha si ejiji na imewe isonyere ya nche otu, gụnyere Patrick Pruniaux, mbụ osoje onyeisi nke ahịa na Tag Heuer na mbụ Yves Saint Laurent onyeisi Paul Deneve, onye bụ ugbu Apple si "osote onyeisi oche nke pụrụ iche oru ngo".

Tim Cook kpughe ọgbụgba ahụ Apple Watch na California afọ gara aga.
Tim Cook kpughe ọgbụgba ahụ Apple Watch na California afọ gara aga. Foto: Zuma / Rex

Ka Tim Cook pụta si onyinyo nke Steve Jobs?

Ole na ole isi uloru e dị ka njikọ chiri anya ha na ụlọ ọrụ ndị dị ka Jobs bụ na Apple, na Cook chere ihu a siri ike agha ike ya inweta investors nke tụrụ egwu na o nweghị ihe ngalaba-nchoputa ọhụụ na oké ihe ngosi.

Mmume investors David Einhorn na Carl Icahn gbalịrị igbochi Cook si management, ma ọ kwụ ebe ọ kwụ. Ọ na-egosikwa ya steely akụkụ site axing Scott Forstall, nke bụbu isi nke ya iOS mobile sistemụ, n'elu okpu egbe nke Apple Maps ngwa, nakwa dị ka dochie isi nke ụlọ ọrụ ahụ si na-echekwa, John Browett - bụbu Dixons onyeisi - mgbe erughị otu afọ na ọrụ.

Jobs na Cook bụ "ndị dị otú ahụ àgwà dị iche iche", -ekwu Milanesi, bụ onye so Apple maka ihe karịrị afọ iri. "The n'ikuku n'okpuru Cook anọwo nnọọ mma: ọ bụ nnọọ nnukwu na arụmọrụ na ijikwa ngwaahịa yinye. "

Milanesi ekwu Cook nwekwara mere a otutu ime ka Apple na-eche dị ka a ọzọ mfe ịbịakwute brand. "Na Jobs ọ bụ aspirational ma dịtụ untouchable na anya,"Ọ na-ekwu. "O yiri nnọọ ihe na-emeghe na inweta n'okpuru Tim, na nke ahụ bụ ihe dị mkpa dị ka ha chọrọ ịgbatị ngwaahịa nso ka a dịgasị ngalaba nke na-eji ọkụ.

"Ya nnukwu ule ga-Apple Watch, dị ka ọ bụ nke mbụ ngwaahịa na-oru n'okpuru idu ndú ya. "

Ga Apple si nnukwu ego ikpo aghọ a liability?

Apple na-eme ọtụtụ ihe ndị ọzọ ego karịa ka ọ ga-emefu, ruo n'ókè nke na ọ emeworo a $ 178bn ego ikpo. Ọ kwukwara $ 23bn ka coffers ke akpatre nkeji iri na ise na fọrọ nke nta niile nke ọ na-banked esenidụt. Ewere ya azụ ka US inyeghachi oke n'akụ ga-eweta nnukwu tax ụgwọ.

Iji mee ka obi investors Apple e ịzụ azụ mbak, ma site na-agbaziri megide ego kama iji isi obodo. Ọ gbaraghị $ 45bn mbak afọ gara aga ma emebeghị ka ukwuu nke a kụkpọrọ akụkpọ ego. Ọ nwere $ 35bn nke ụgwọ.

Blaber ekwu Apple kwesịrị ịhụ na a nnukwu njuputa na-enye ya "na muscle na mgbanwe itinye ego na ọhụrụ na edemede". Ma ya ọhụrụ na nnukwu nnweta - Dr Dre si ekweisi na gụgharia azụmahịa gbagwojuru Electronics - eri ya $ 3bn.

The size nke Apple si ego nketa ka dọtara uche nke ndị ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị. Cook gwara Congress na ụlọ ọrụ ga-emecha mee ka ọ laghachi azụ onshore, kama ọ bụ naanị mgbe e nwere "dị ịrịba ama simplification nke ụlọọrụ tax koodu" gụnyere a "ezi uche tax on mba ọzọ enwetakwa na-enye ohere free eruba n'ime isi obodo azụ ka US".

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