Powered by Guardian.co.ukAtik sa a ki gen tit “Cannabis reyèlman kapab deklanche paranoya” te ekri pa Daniel Freeman ak Jason Freeman, pou theguardian.com nan Mèkredi 16th jiyè 2014 06.00 UTC

"Mwen pa ta santi se konsa pou kont li,"T'ap chante Bob Dylan tounen nan 1966, "Tout moun dwe debarase kout wòch." Li ta sanble anpil moun te oblije: Cannabis se kounye a byen lwen ak lwen pi renmen dwòg ilegal nan mond lan, ak apeprè 180 milyon moun li pran l 'nan ane ki sot pase. Nan Angletè ak Wales sou 13.5% nan 16 to 24 ane timoun ki gen te itilize Cannabis nan ane ki sot pase, ak prèske youn sou chak twa moun ki pral eseye li omwen yon fwa pandan tout lavi yo. nan la 6.4% nan granmoun ki gen laj 16-59 ki te rapòte lè l sèvi avèk Cannabis nan ane ki sot pase, sou 40% te di yo te konn itilize li omwen yon fwa chak mwa.

Etandone ke yon moso enpòtan nan popilasyon an yo konsome bagay la, li se petèt pa etone ke pi fò moun kwè risk ki genyen nan ki patisipe nan ap resevwa kout wòch se plis oswa mwens ekivalan a risk ki genyen nan nan ap resevwa bwè. US prezidan Barack Obama sanble ap youn nan yo: "Mwen fimen po kòm yon jenn ti kabrit, ak mwen wè li kòm yon abitid move ak yon vis, pa trè diferan de sigarèt yo ke mwen fimen kòm yon jèn moun moute nan yon gwo moso nan lavi granmoun mwen,” li te esplike nan New Yorker nan. “Mwen pa panse li se pi danjere pase alkòl.”

Sètènman anpil moun ki sèvi ak Cannabis san yo pa efè negatif, ak tout bon ak anpil nan yo menm trè plezan. Anplis, gen prèv ki montre Cannabis ka pote reyèl benefis medikal, pou egzanp nan soulaje doulè kwonik. Men, gen se tou konnen yo dwe yon lyen ant Cannabis ak panse paranoya.

"Paranoya" nan kontèks sa a vle di pè a enjustifye oubyen ki depase limit ke lòt moun yo ap eseye fè nou mal. Li se yon santi ke se byen lwen plis komen te panse pase deja. Sa a se konprann bay yo ke nou, yo tout toujou ap fòse ka esplike nou rèv sitiyasyon sosyal, peze moute atitid yo ak entansyon ki nan pèp la nou rankontre. Paske li se enposib konnen pou asire w sa lòt moun ap panse, gen sijè ki abòde ase pou enkyetid nou yo jwenn pi bon an nan nou.

Tankou pifò eksperyans sikolojik, gen yon espèk nan paranoya nan popilasyon an: anpil moun gen yon kèk, relativman twò grav panse paranoya, pandan ke pou yon kèk moun sa yo panse yo anpil, ki pèsistan, ak trè pwofondman troublan. itilizatè Cannabis gen plis chans yo dwe nan fen an pwoblèm nan ki spectre. Pou egzanp, our study of the population of England found that the belief that people are deliberately trying to harm you is three times as common among cannabis users as it is among non-users. The belief that people are trying to cause you serious injury or harm is five times as common among cannabis users.

Sepandan, what we see here is an association between cannabis and paranoia. Experts generally agree that regular use of cannabis starting from an early age is an accurate predictor of later severe mental health problems, but what hasn’t been established is whether the drug causes paranoid thoughts. Maybe people suffering from paranoia are more likely to start taking cannabis; or perhaps the drug use and the suspicious thoughts are independent consequences of another factor entirely.

This question of the tangled interrelationship of paranoia and cannabis use was at the heart of a study we conducted with colleagues from the University of Oxford, the Institute of Psychiatry at King’s College London, and the University of Manchester, published on Wednesday in Schizophrenia Bulletin. Why did we focus on paranoia rather than mental health in general? Other studies tend to lump all such problems together under the heading of “psychosis” or “schizophrenia”, men as we’ve argued previously on this blog such experiences frequently occur independently: having paranoid thoughts doesn’t mean, pou egzanp, that someone will also hear imaginary voices.

To discover whether cannabis really does cause paranoia in vulnerable individuals, nou te pote soti pi gwo janm etid la nan efè yo nan THC (Δ9-tetraidrokanabinol, direktè lekòl engredyan psikoaktiv dwòg la). nou rekrite 121 volontè, tout moun te pran Cannabis omwen yon fwa anvan, ak tout moun li te gen ki gen eksperyans total panse paranoya nan mwa a anvan (ki se tipik nan mwatye popilasyon an). te Okenn te dyagnostike ak yon maladi mantal. volontè yo te owaza chwazi yo resevwa yon dòz 1.5mg nan venn nan swa THC (ekivalan a nan yon jwenti fò) oswa yon plasebo (saline). Yo swiv efè yo nan sibstans sa yo, nou itilize fòm ki pi vaste nan evalyasyon ankò deplwaye li teste paranoya, ki gen ladan yon senaryo vityèl-reyalite, yon-lavi reyèl sitiyasyon sosyal, pwòp tèt ou-administre kesyonè, ak evalyasyon entèvyou ekspè.

Rezilta yo te klè: THC ki te koze panse paranoya. Mwatye nan sa yo bay yo THC paranoya ki gen eksperyans, konpare ak 30% nan gwoup la plasebo: ki se, youn nan senk te gen yon ogmantasyon nan paranoya ki te dirèkteman atribuabl THC nan. (Enteresan, plasebo yo ki te pwodwi efè ekstraòdinè nan sèten moun. Yo te kwè ke yo te kalonnen, ak aji kòmsadwa. Paske nan moman an nou pa t 'konnen ki moun ki te resevwa dwòg la, nou sipoze yo te segondè tou.)

THC tou pwodui lòt troublan efè sikolojik, tankou enkyetid, enkyete, bese atitid, ak panse negatif sou pwòp tèt ou a. Kout tèm memwa te gen pwoblèm. Apre sa, THC nan te pwovoke yon seri de sa ki sikològ rele "eksperyans iregilye": son te sanble pi fò pase nòmal ak koulè klere; panse parèt devan repete nan lespri moun yo '; ak tan te sanble yo dwe defòme.

Why is cannabis such a potent trigger for paranoia? Our statistical analysis showed that in our experiment the culprits were THC’s negative effects on the individual’s mood and view of the self, and the anomalous sensory experiences it can produce. Negative emotions leave us feeling down and vulnerable. Worry leads us to the worst conclusions. So when we try to make sense of the anomalous experiences – when we try, nan lòt mo, to understand what’s happening to us – the world can appear a weird, frightening and hostile place. Hence the paranoia. Our analysis suggests that the impairments in short-term memory did not increase the paranoia.

Clearly cannabis doesn’t cause these problems for everyone. And the suspiciousness wore off as the drug left the bloodstream. But the study does show that paranoia isn’t tenuously linked to THC: for a significant number of people, it’s a direct result.

Perhaps most importantly, the research shines a light on the psychological processes underlying paranoia in general. When we worry, think negatively about ourselves and experience perceptual disturbances, it’s much more likely that we will feel needlessly suspicious of others.

Swiv ProfDFreeman ak @JasonFreeman100 sou Twitter

guardian.co.uk © Gadyen Nouvèl & Media Limited 2010

Pibliye via la Gadyen News Feed plugin pou WordPress.

20817 0