Erik Bati, yon 34-ane fin vye granmoun Ameriken, te gen difikilte pou avanse pou pi bra l 'oswa janm pou plis pase yon deseni, depi yon blesi bal kite l 'paralize soti nan kou a desann. menm koulye a, li mank ti bagay yo.
"Mwen vle pou kapab bwè byè pwòp mwen – pou kapab pran yon bwè nan pwòp vitès m ', lè m 'vle pran yon bwè ti gout soti nan byè mwen epi yo pa dwe mande yon moun bay l' ban mwen,"Li te di. "Mwen vrèman manke ki endepandans yo."
Sorto te dènyèman kapab satisfè objektif sa a, lè li moute premye moun ki nan mond k ap gen yon aparèy newo-prostetik anjandre nan yon rejyon nan sèvo a ki kote entansyon yo te fè.
Jis pa panse sou li, Sorto te kapab kontwole yon bra Robotics yo bwè soti nan yon boutèy lè l sèvi avèk yon pay, perform a smooth hand-shaking gesture, and even play “rock, papye, scissors”.
He describes bring able to directly control the robotic arm as like “an out-of-body experience”.
“I wanted to just run around and high-five everybody,” he said following the laboratory trial.
The advance, which blurs the boundary between man and machine, raises the prospect of patients with spinal injuries being able to seamlessly control robotic limbs or even entire body suits in the future.
Déjà, scientists have successfully demonstrated similar technology in amputees, where the spinal cord and nervous system remain intact. This means that electrical impulses can be read out from nerves in the arm and used to control the prosthetic. In the case of a spinal injury patient, sepandan, the signals need to be decoded directly from the brain.
Jis kounye a, scientists have focused on the brain’s motor cortex, which generates the electrical signals that are sent down the spinal cord and control the contractions of every muscular movement.
Sepandan, the resultant neuro-prosthetics, which have been trialled on a handful of patients, produced movements that were delayed and jerky: not the smooth and seemingly automatic gestures associated with natural movement.
In the latest trial, scientists inserted implants into the “higher” brain region, called the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), that gives rise to the intention to move, rather than the details of how we execute the movements.
Richard Andersen, who led the trial at California Institute of Technology, di: “When you move your arm, you really don’t think about which muscles to activate and the details of the movement – such as lift the arm, extend the arm, grasp the cup, close the hand around the cup, ak sou sa. olye de sa, you think about the goal of the movement, pou egzanp, ‘I want to pick up that cup of water.’”
By decoding a person’s actual intention, the scientists were able to do better at achieving their goal.
Sorto was shot in the neck at the age of 21, at a time when he was involved in gang activity. He has since earned a college degree and now serves as a peer mentor to others who have suffered spinal cord injuries, but relies on others for any movement he needs to make.
After enrolling to be involved in the research, Sorto sibi operasyon chirijikal nan 2013, pandan ki li te gen yon pè nan ranje electrodes ti anjandre nan de pati nan pp - yon sèl la ki kontwole rive ak yon lòt ki kontwole men.
Chak etalaj kat-pa-kat-milimèt gen 96 elektwòd, chak anrejistreman aktivite a nan newòn sèl. ranje yo yo ki konekte pa yon kab nan yon sistèm nan processeurs òdinatè ki dekode entansyon sèvo a epi y'a vire sa a nan mouvman nan bra a Robotics.
Apre rekipere li de operasyon, Sorto teste kapasite l 'yo kontwole bra a nan laboratwa a, yon bagay li te dekri tankou surprenante fasil.
"Se te yon gwo sipriz ke pasyan an te kapab kontwole manm la nan jou yon sèl – trè premye jou a li te eseye,"Te di Andersen. "Sa a ateste ki jan entwisyon kontwòl la se lè w ap itilize aktivite pp."
Following several weeks of training, Sorto learnt to control a computer cursor, drink from a bottle using a straw and make a hand-shaking gesture.
In a video, from one of the sessions, he beams with joy after successfully taking a sip of a drink and exclaims “that’s so awesome!", while raising the black prosthetic arm aloft in a triumphant gesture.
“This study has been very meaningful to me,” said Sorto. “It gives me great pleasure to be part of the solution for improving paralysed patients’ lives. I think that if it were safe enough, I would really enjoy grooming myself – shaving, brushing my own teeth. That would be fantastic.”
“We are at a point in human research where we are making huge strides in overcoming a lot of neurologic disease,” said neurologist Christianne Heck, of the University of Southern California. “These very important early clinical trials could provide hope for patients with all sorts of neurologic problems that involve paralysis such as stroke, brain injury, ALS and even multiple sclerosis.”
Andersen and colleagues are now refining the technology so that is could eventually allow patients to perform finer motor skills. Pou fè sa, they believe it will be necessary to create a prosthetic that provides sensory feedback from the robotic arm to the brain, rather than the system working as a one-way stream.
“To really do fine dexterous control, you also need feedback from touch,"Te di Andersen. “Without it, it’s like going to the dentist and having your mouth numbed. It’s very hard to speak without somatosensory feedback.”
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