Lub sab saum toj plaub niaj hnub killers nyob rau hauv lub sab hnub poob

The top four modern killers in the west

 

Powered by Guardian.co.ukQhov tsab xov xwm hu ua “Lub sab saum toj plaub niaj hnub killers nyob rau hauv lub sab hnub poob” raug sau los ntawm Robin McKie, rau Lub Soj Ntsuam rau hnub Saturday 6 Lub rau hli ntuj 2015 23.05 UTC

CANCER

Qhov twg yog peb
Lub sib ntaus tawm tsam mob cancer tau muaj pov thawj yuav tsum yog ib ntawm cov loj tshaj kev txawj ntse thiab tswv yim kev sib tw ntawm niaj hnub lub sij hawm. Ib tug puas xyoo dhau los, phais tiv thaiv backed los ntawm thaum ntxov ntaub ntawv ntawm hluav taws xob txoj kev kho yog cov tsuas riam phom nyob rau pov tseg ntawm cov kws kho mob. Txij thaum ntawd, ib tug xov tooj tseem ceeb revolutions tau hloov uas.

Tus thawj yog cov kev taw qhia ntawm cov kws khomob, nyob rau hauv daim ntawv ntawm cov tshuaj uas raug muab, ironically, los ntawm lub mustard roj uas tau siv raws li ib tug riam phom thaum lub sij hawm thawj tsov rog ntiaj teb. Cov kws kho mob uas nqa tawm autopsies rau roj cov neeg raug sau tseg hais tias nws inhibited cell division, thiab tsim versions uas pab kom tsis txhob mob hlwb los ntawm proliferating. Cov los ua niaj hnub ua kev kho mob nyob rau hauv lub xyoo 1950.

Yuav ua li cas tam sim no?
Raws li genomic kev tshawb fawb loj nyob rau hauv lub xyoo pua 20th, zaum tau siv uas paub los tsim tshiab kev kho mob. Tsis ntev los no tau muaj tsom kev kho mob. Cov no yog cov ntau yam nyob rau hauv lawv txiav txim tawm tsam hlav vim hais tias lawv ua rau molecular lub hom phaj txuam nrog rau kev mob hlwb, whereas feem ntau standard chemotherapies ua rau tag nrho cov sai faib hlwb, yuav lawv ib txwm los yog to.

Piv txwv li, nyob rau hauv hais txog ib tug nyob rau hauv tsib lub mis mob cancer cov neeg mob, mob hlwb muaj ntau heev ntawm ib txoj kev loj hlob-txhawb protein hu ua HER2 rau lawv nto. Mis qog nqaij hlav ntau heev ntawm no protein yog tshwj xeeb yog kev txhoj puab heev, zaum pom. Tus nab npawb ntawm cov tshuaj, xws li Herceptin, tau tsim rau phiaj no protein thiab thaiv kev kis tus kab mob hlwb. Cov tsom kev kho mob yog tam sim no ib tug mainstay nyob rau hauv lub sib ntaus sib tua tiv thaiv kev mob.

Yuav ua li cas yog cov teeb meem loj?
Great kev kawm yog ua, tab sis lub qho teeb meem tej zaum yuav nyiaj txiag es tsis kev. Lub cim tshiab ntawm cov tshuaj raug tsim yog kim heev, raising cov lus nug ntawm affordability.

Siv lub fledgling technology ntawm immunotherapy. Cancer hlwb muaj ib tug tsi ntawm daim card sib tuav tes uas persuades T-hlwb, ib tug tseem ceeb ib feem ntawm lub cev anti-tus kab mob defenses, tsis mus tua lawv. Nyob rau hauv lub Kwvyees li xyoo 1990, zaum nrhiav tau ib molecule nyob T-hlwb uas yog ib feem ntawm qhov no sib tuav tes. Nws yog lub npe hu ua programmed tuag 1 (PD1) thiab, txij li thaum nws foundations, soj ntsuam muaj twb tau sim los cuam tshuam txog nws txoj kev ua.

Cov tshuaj tshiab unveiled nyob rau hauv Chicago lub lim tiam yog lub txiaj ntsim ntawm txoj hauj lwm no. Raug rau cov neeg mob uas tshaj melanoma, uas muaj ib tug high kev tuag tus nqi, twb ua luaj tau, tab sis zaum ceeb toom hais tias yuav muaj mob loj-phiv nyob rau hauv ib co neeg mob.

lub hlwb swb
Duab: Alamy

dementia

Qhov twg yog peb?
Dementia yog tsis tau ib tug kab mob. Nws yog lub sij hawm ntawm muaj ntau ntau tej yam kev mob. Alzheimer tus kab mob no yog feem ntau ntawm cov tab sis lwm tus xws li vascular dementia thiab frontotemporal dementia. Tag nrho cov ntaub ntawv qhia cov tsos mob, Txawm li cas los. Cov no muaj xws nco tsis, tsis meej pem thiab cwm pwm hloov.

Thaum dementia no yeej tsis yog ib tug inevitable sij hawm ntawm tau txais qub, qhov yuav ua rau ntawm cov muaj tus mob undoubtedly tsub kom nrog lub hnub nyoog. Yog li, raws li kis kab mob tau vanquished nyob rau hauv lub UK, thiab lub neej no nqi rau mob cancer thiab lub plawv mob yuam down, ntau thiab ntau cov neeg tau mus nyob rau cov laus uas muaj hnub nyoog. (Lub neej expectancy nyob rau hauv lub UK yog tam sim no 79 rau cov txiv neej thiab 83 rau cov poj niam.)

Niaj hnub no, nws yog xam hais tias muaj tam sim no ntau tshaj li 850,000 cov neeg uas muaj dementia nyob rau hauv lub UK.

Yuav ua li cas tam sim no?
los ntawm 2025, tus xov tooj ntawm tus neeg mob ntawm dementia nyob rau hauv lub UK yuav tsum sawv rau ntau tshaj 1 lab. los ntawm 2050, nws yog npaj rau ntau tshaj 2 lab. Nyob rau hauv tas li ntawd, tus mob no tau pom muaj yuav tsum tau tshwj xeeb yog cov nyob rau hauv cov poj niam. Ntawm 850,000 dementia cov neeg mob nyob rau hauv teb chaws Aas Kiv, 500,000 cov poj niam. Raws li ib tug tshwm sim, cov poj niam tshaj 60 yog tam sim no ob zaug li yuav tau txais dementia li lub mis mob cancer.

Zaum no tam sim no ua hauj lwm rau txoj kev siv tshuaj ntsuam genetic thiab qia-cell yees to taub txog cov ncauj lus kom ntxaws ua ntawm lub ntau yam ntaub ntawv ntawm dementia thiab, nyob rau hauv lub ntev mus dhia, los tsim cov tshuaj uas yuav qeeb tsis tau ntawm faculties nyob rau hauv cov neeg cuam tshuam los ntawm tus mob.

Zaum ceeb toom hais tias qhov no aspiration tseem yog ib tug long-term lub hom phiaj thiab ceeb toom muaj ntau ua hauj lwm uas tseem xav tau kev pab yuav tsum tau ua.

Yuav ua li cas yog cov teeb meem?
Ib tug tseem ceeb teeb meem rau cov neeg ua los tsoo dementia yog ib tug tsis muaj ntawm cov kev pab. Muaj loj kev nqis peev uas nyob rau hauv lub plawv tus kab mob thiab mob cancer kev tshawb fawb nyob rau hauv xyoo tsis ntev los thiab cov tau pab coj txoj kev tuag cov nqi.

Tab sis hais tias tsis tau tshwm sim nrog dementia, hais tias Mathais Norton, lub taub hau ntawm txoj cai rau Alzheimer tus tshawb fawb UK. "Cia li saib cov nuj nqis,"Nws hais.

"Tag nrho cov siv nyob rau hauv lub UK – los ntawm cov koom haum thiab cov tsoom fwv – rau dementia nyob rau hauv 2013 yog £ 73.8m. Los ntawm sib piv, rau mob cancer, uas daim duab yog £ 503m. "Qhov no txhais tau tias underfunding txo manpower, hais campaigners. Muaj ib co 3,600 dementia soj ntsuam ua hauj lwm nyob rau hauv lub UK -about 19,000 tsawg tshaj li cov neeg ua hauj lwm rau mob cancer, txawm tias dementia nqi lub UK kev khwv nyiaj txiag ntau. Yog li ntawd, zeem muag ntawm kev nrhiav kev kho mob mus qeeb los yog nres tsis tau ntawm faculties txuam nrog dementia yuav muaj, hais tias soj ntsuam.

lub plawv nres, conceptual computer artwork
Duab: PASIEKA / SPL / Getty Dluab / Hom X

pLAWV MOB

Qhov twg yog peb?
Tshaj yav dhau los 50 xyoo, muaj tau ib qho impressive txoj kev txhim kho nyob rau hauv lub neej no nqi los ntawm cov hlab plawv tus kab mob nyob rau hauv teb chaws Aas Kiv. Qhov no twb precisely summed li los ntawm Peter Weissberg, kev kho mob thawj coj ntawm lub British plawv Foundation. "Lub hauv paus tau tsim rau hauv 1961, thaum kab mob plawv yog ravaging lub teb chaws. Nws tshwm sim los ze li ntawm ib nrab ntawm tag nrho cov neeg tuag nyob rau hauv lub UK nyob rau hauv xyoo ntawd. "

nrog hindsight, nws tsis yog ib qho nyuaj rau saib yog vim li cas. Kev haus luam yeeb ntau plaub lub sij hawm siab tshaj hnub no, thaum noj mov cov zaub mov muaj nyob rau hauv roj nyeem rog – tag nrho cov mis nyuj, butter thiab cov nqaij liab – yog tus norm.

Niaj hnub no, cov khoom noj tau hloov los ntawm sab-roj xaiv, zaub roj, skimmed mis nyuj thiab nqaij qaib. Peb muaj cov tshuaj kom txo cov ntshav siab thiab roj uas txhaws theem, thiab nws yog ua tau rau qhib sim los yog roj ntsha tsis loj phais.

Yuav ua li cas tam sim no?
Muaj kev xav, cov tshuaj los kho puas siab suffers los ntawm ib tug tseem ceeb teeb meem: lawv tsis yooj yim rau sim. "Peb yuav tsis kom txiav cov neeg mob qhib rau tshem tawm lub plawv-cov ntaub so ntswg kuaj. Uas yog cia li tsis tswv yim los yog raug cai,"Hais tias Chris Denning ntawm Nottingham University.

Ib tug tov rau zaum nyob rau hauv xyoo tsis ntev los tau tig los rau tus siv ntawm qia hlwb. Thaum Nottingham University soj ntsuam muaj npaum li cas lub hlwb los ntawm cov neeg mob 'daim tawv nqaij thiab bathed lawv nyob rau hauv as-ham rau kev txiav txim los hloov lawv mus rau hauv qia hlwb, ib hom ntawm tes uas yuav tsum muab mus rau hauv tej nqaij mos. Cov hlwb ces tsim rau hauv lub plawv hlwb, uas yog khaws cia nyob rau hauv Petri cov tais diav rau kev soj ntsuam lub hom phiaj.

"Qhov ntawd txhais tau tias lawv yog zoo tagnrho rau cov ua cov tshuaj tshiab rau. Nws yog ib tug heev kawg tseem ceeb txoj kev loj hlob,"Ntxiv Denning.

Lwm yam zaum ntseeg tias tej zaum nws yuav tsum tau siv qia hlwb mus ncaj qha mus kho, puas siab nyob rau hauv lub nyob ze yav tom ntej.

Yuav ua li cas yog cov teeb meem?
Txawm tias kev kho mob cov txheej txheem txuas ntxiv mus txhim kho prospects rau txuag lub neej ntawm cov neeg uas raug kev txom nyem los ntawm tus kab mob plawv, muaj ib tug tswv tsev ntawm epidemiological tej teeb meem uas tau hem tias yuav pab txhawb cov kev pab.

Piv txwv li, tus nqi ntawm kev haus luam yeeb tsis yeem sharply ntawm 1972 thiab 1994 tab sis lub caij nplooj zeeg-off tau txij li thaum tub ceevxwm. Thiab cov loj heev ntawm hnyav haus tsis tau hloov ntau heev txij thaum lub xyoo 1970. Zuj zus, thaum yau rog tau kom nyob rau hauv ob qho tag nrho cov tub hluas thiab cov ntxhais txij li thaum nruab nrab-1980s, thaum laus rog nqi kuj ntxiv mus sawv - raws li yog cov xwm txheej ntawm cov ntshav qab zib nyob rau hauv lub UK. Tag nrho cov yam ua rau kom cov kev pheej hmoo tias kab mob plawv lub neej no nqi yuav sawv rov qab nyob rau hauv lub nyob ze yav tom ntej.

Weissberg has warned that these factors “threaten to derail the decreasing trends in heart disease and death rates that we are now experiencing”.

Antibodies attacking flu virus, artwork
Duab: SCIEPRO/Getty Images/Brand X

INFECTIOUS DISEASE

Qhov twg yog peb?
Defeating the scourge of infectious disease in the western world is generally attributed to the development of vaccine programmes and antibiotics, although improved sanitation and health education have also been key factors.

“In fact, death rates from tuberculosis, a pernicious killer, had begun to drop by the mid-19th century,” said Carsten Timmermann of Manchester University. “In 1838, there were around 4,000 deaths per million as a result of TB, but this had dropped to around 1,000 los ntawm 1900. Vaccines and antibiotics had nothing to do with that. Tseeb, it is not clear why the decline occurred at all. But it is also evident that programmes such as the BCG vaccine project had really stopped tuberculosis being a serious killer by the middle of the 20th century.”

Yuav ua li cas tam sim no?
In the west, most infectious diseases are now kept at bay. Txawm li cas los, the balance is an uneasy one. “In the 1960s, a US surgeon-general was alleged to have claimed that infectious diseases had been completely defeated,” said Jeremy Farrar, who is head of the UK Wellcome Trust.

“The story may be apocryphal but it certainly sums up attitudes at the time. ces, a couple of decades later, we had the arrival of HIV in the west and a very clear lesson about the ever-present danger of infectious diseases, uas can spread very quickly from other parts of the world.”

Nyob rau hauv tas li ntawd, the rise of antibiotic resistancea result, in part, of overusehas led to growing fears that one of the west’s key defences against infectious disease may be lost in the near future, unless pharmaceutical companies speed up the development of new versions.

Yuav ua li cas yog cov teeb meem?
In an increasingly connected world, it’s more and more difficult to contain infectious diseases. Changes in weather patterns and increased migrations from areas affected by rising sea levels or spreading deserts will also intensify the risk of new diseases or new strains of existing conditions arriving in the west.

“In developing nations, we have replaced the problems of infectious disease with health issues such as diabetes and obesity,” said Farrar. “But in developing nations, they still have major problems with infectious diseasesmalaria, TB and HIV, piv txwv li – but are also being affected by obesity and diabetes. Countries such as theseVietnam is a good exampleneed considerable help from global agencies such as the World Health Organisation. Txawm li cas los, these agencies are not getting the support they need from the west any more.”

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