Tshiab txoj kev tshawb no neeg pab leg ntaubntawv mus nrhiav caj txuas ntawm creativity thiab kev puas hlwb

New study claims to find genetic link between creativity and mental illness

 

Powered by Guardian.co.ukQhov tsab xov xwm hu ua “Tshiab txoj kev tshawb no neeg pab leg ntaubntawv mus nrhiav caj txuas ntawm creativity thiab kev puas hlwb” raug sau los ntawm Ian Sample Science editor, rau Tus Saib Xyuas rau hnub Monday 8 Lub rau hli ntuj 2015 17.04 UTC

Cov ancient Greeks twb ua ntej mus ua tus taw tes. Shakespeare tsa lub zeem muag ib yam nkaus thiab. Tab sis Tswv Byron yog, tej zaum, lub feem ntau ncaj qha ntawm lawv tag nrho cov: "Peb cov uas lub khoom siv tes ua yog tag nrho cov vwm,"Nws hais rau cov Countess ntawm Blessington, casting ib ceev faj qhov muag tshaj nws cov khub paj huam.

Cov kev xav ntawm lub tsim txom artist yog ib tug tawv ncauj meme. creativity, nws hais, yog fueled los ntawm cov dab uas ntxias wrestle nyob rau hauv lawv cov darkest teev. Lub tswv yim yog fanciful rau muaj ntau zaum. Tab sis ib tug tshiab txoj kev tshawv neeg pab leg ntaubntawv qhov link yuav tsum zoo-nrhiav tau tom qab tag nrho cov, thiab sau ntawv mus rau hauv lub twisted molecules ntawm peb DNA.

Nyob rau hauv ib tug loj kev tshawb luam tawm nyob rau hnub Monday, zaum nyob rau hauv Iceland qhia tias kev tshuaj ntsuam genetic yam uas tsa kev pheej hmoo ntawm bipolar tsis meej thiab schizophrenia yog pom ntau zaus nyob rau hauv cov neeg nyob rau hauv muaj tswv yim professions. painters, musicians, sau ntawv thiab dancers tau, nyob rau nruab nrab, 25% yuav nqa cov noob variants tshaj professions tus zaum txiav txim yuav tsum tau tsawg tswv yim, cov uas twb ua teb, phau ntawv tes dej num thiab Salespeople.

kari Stefansson, tus tsim thiab CEO ntawm txhais, ib tug noob caj noob ces lub tuam txhab raws li nyob rau hauv Reykjavik, hais tias cov uas nrhiav tau, piav nyob rau hauv cov phau ntawv journal xwm neuroscience, taw tes rau ib qho txog biology rau ib co kev puas hlwb kev ntshawv siab thiab creativity. "Yuav kom muaj tswv yim, koj yuav tsum xav hais tias txawv,"Nws hais rau tus saib xyuas. "Thiab thaum peb yog cov sib txawv, peb muaj ib tug ib txwm yuav tsum tau sau npe lo rau coj txawv txawv, vwm thiab txawm insane. "

Lub zaum kos rau kev tshuaj ntsuam genetic thiab ntaub ntawv kho mob los ntawm 86,000 Icelanders mus nrhiav caj variants uas ob npaug qhov nruab nrab uas yuav muaj schizophrenia, thiab tsa kev pheej hmoo ntawm bipolar tsis meej los ntawm ntau tshaj ib feem peb. Thaum lawv ntsia ntau npaum li cas cov variants twb nyob rau hauv cov neeg ntawm lub teb chaws kev kawm societies, lawv pom ib tug 17% nce piv nrog uas tsis yog-neeg.

Cov soj ntsuam ntawm mus rau mus xyuas lawv tshawb pom nyob rau hauv loj kho mob databases muaj nyob rau hauv lub Netherlands thiab Sweden. cov no 35,000 neeg, cov tswv kom yuav muaj tswv yim (los ntawm txoj hauj lwm los yog los ntawm cov lus teb rau ib tug lus nug) twb ze li ntawm 25% ntau yuav nqa lub hlwb tsis meej variants.

Stefansson ntseeg hais tias cov qhab nia ntawm cov noob kom cov uas muaj feem yuav schizophrenia thiab bipolar tsis meej. Cov tej zaum yuav hloov txoj kev nyob rau hauv uas muaj coob tus neeg xav hais tias, tab sis nyob rau hauv feem ntau cov neeg ua tsis muaj dab tsi heev teeb meem. Tab sis rau 1% ntawm cov pejxeem, caj yam, lub neej yaam puab paub thiab lwm yam influences yuav nce kom nto nyob rau hauv cov teeb meem, thiab ib tug mob ntawm kev puas hlwb.

"Feem ntau, thaum cov neeg uas tsim ib yam dab tsi tshiab, lawv mus straddling ntawm sanity thiab insanity,"Hais tias Stefansson. "Kuv xav tias cov kev tshwm sim txhawb cov laus tswvyim ntawm tus chim ntse heev. Creativity yog ib tug zoo uas tau muab rau peb Mozart, Bach, Van Gogh. Nws yog ib tug zoo uas yog tseem ceeb heev rau peb haiv neeg. Tab sis nws los ntawm ib tug uas muaj feem yuav rau tus neeg, thiab 1% ntawm cov pejxeem them tus nqi rau nws. "

Stefansson concedes hais tias nws txoj kev tshawb nrhiav xwb ib tug tsis muaj zog txuas ntawm lub caj variants rau kev puas hlwb thiab tswv yim zoo txhim. Thiab nws yog ib qhov uas lwm zaum tos rau. Lub caj yam uas tsa kev pheej hmoo ntawm kev puas hlwb muaj teeb meem piav txog 0.25% ntawm lub variation nyob rau hauv cov haiv neeg 'artistic muaj peev xwm, txoj kev tshawb no pom. David Cutler, ib tug geneticist ntawm Emory University nyob rau hauv Atlanta, txo nws hwj tus xov tooj nyob rau hauv foundations: "Yog hais tias qhov kev ncua deb ntawm kuv, qhov tsawg artistic neeg uas koj yuav mus kom tau raws li, thiab ib tug tiag tiag artist yog ib mais, cov variants tshwm sim rau collectively piav 13 taw ntawm qhov kev ncua deb,"Nws hais.

Feem ntau ntawm cov artist lub tswv yim flair, ces, yog cia rau txawv caj yam, los yog mus rau lwm cov influences zoo rau nws, xws li lub neej yaam puab paub, uas muab lawv nyob rau ntawm lawv muaj tswv yim cov lus.

rau Stefansson, txawm tias ib tug me me sib tshooj ntawm biology ntawm kev puas hlwb mob thiab creativity yog fascinating. "Nws txhais tau tias ib tug ntau ntawm tej yam zoo uas peb tau txais nyob rau hauv lub neej, los ntawm creativity, tuaj ntawm ib tug nqi. Nws qhia kuv hais tias thaum nws los txog rau peb txog biology, peb yuav tsum to taub tias txhua yam yog nyob rau hauv ib txoj kev zoo thiab nyob rau hauv ib txoj kev phem,"Nws hais.

Tab sis Albert Rothenberg, xib fwb ntawm Psychiatry ntawm Harvard University yog tsis ntseeg. Nws ntseeg hais tias yog tsis muaj zoo pov thawj rau ib qhov txuas ntawm kev puas hlwb thiab tswv yim zoo txhim. "Nws yog ib qhov romantic notion ntawm lub xyoo pua puv 19, hais tias cov artist yog lub struggler, aberrant los ntawm zej zog, thiab wrestling nrog puab dab,"Nws hais. "Tab sis coj Van Gogh. Nws cia li tshwm sim tau kev mob raws li muaj tswv yim. Rau kuv, qhov rov qab yog xav paub ntxiv nthuav: muaj tswv yim neeg yog feem ntau tsis puas hlwb, tab sis lawv siv thought dab uas yog ntawm cov hoob kawm tswv yim thiab sib txawv. "

Yog hais tias Van Gogh tus mob yog ib txoj koob hmoov, cov artist yeej ua tsis tau tejyam rau saib nws hais tias txoj kev. Nyob rau hauv ib qho ntawm nws lub xeem ntawv, he voiced his dismay at the disorder he fought for so much of his life: "Oh, if I could have worked without this accursed diseasewhat things I might have done.”

Nyob rau hauv 2014, Rothernberg published a book, "Flight of Wonder: an investigation of scientific creativity", in which he interviewed 45 science Nobel laureates about their creative strategies. He found no evidence of mental illness in any of them. He suspects that studies which find links between creativity and mental illness might be picking up on something rather different.

“The problem is that the criteria for being creative is never anything very creative. Belonging to an artistic society, or working in art or literature, does not prove a person is creative. But the fact is that many people who have mental illness do try to work in jobs that have to do with art and literature, not because they are good at it, but because they’re attracted to it. And that can skew the data,"Nws hais. “Nearly all mental hospitals use art therapy, and so when patients come out, many are attracted to artistic positions and artistic pursuits.”

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