Txiv neej v Tshuab: Tau Computers ua noj, Sau thiab Xim Zoo Tshaj Peb?

Man v Machine: Can Computers Cook, Write and Paint Better Than Us?

Dag txawj ntse muaj peev xwm tam sim no yeej muaj ib cov kev ua si, paub txog koj lub ntsej muag, txawm rov hais dua rau koj cov chaw nres tsheb daim pib. Tab sis yuav nws ua cov khoom txawm tib neeg nrhiav tau lo qhia?


Powered by Guardian.co.ukQhov tsab xov xwm hu ua “Txiv neej v tshuab: yuav computers ua noj, sau thiab pleev xim zoo dua peb?” raug sau los ntawm Leo Benedictus, rau Tus Saib Xyuas nyob rau hnub Saturday 4 Lub rau hli ntuj 2016 08.00 UTC

ib tug video, rau kuv, hloov txhua yam. Nws yog footage los ntawm cov laus Atari kev ua si breakout, ib tug nyob qhov twg koj xaub ib tug duav sab laug thiab txoj cai raws qab ntawm qhov screen, sim ua kom puas cib los ntawm bouncing ib lub pob mus rau hauv lawv. Tej zaum koj yuav tau nyeem txog cov neeg uas ua ntawv ntawm qhov kev ua si: ib tug algorithm tsim los ntawm DeepMind, lub British dag txawj ntse lub tuam txhab uas nws AlphaGo kev pab cuam kuj tuav ib tug ntawm cov loj tshaj puas mus players, Lee Sedol, nyuam qhuav pib lub xyoo.

Tej zaum koj xav tias yuav ib lub computer mus tau zoo nyob ua si lub computer? Thaum lawv paub yuav ua li cas, lawv yeej ua tau nws ceev thiab ntau li qhia siv kuj tshaj tej yam tib neeg. DeepMind lub Breakout neeg uas ua ntawv paub tsis muaj dab tsi, Txawm li cas los. Nws twb tsis programmed nrog cov lus qhia yuav ua li cas qhov kev ua si tej hauj lwm; nws twb tsis txawm hais npaum li cas los mus siv cov ntawm lwm yam uas. Tag nrho nws twb yog cov duab ntawm qhov screen thiab qhov hais kom ua mus sim kom tau raws li cov ntsiab lus ntau li sai tau.

Watch cov kev yees duab. Thaum xub thawj, lub duav cia lub pob nco rau hauv oblivion, paub tsis zoo. Nws thiaj li, cia li mucking txog, nws knocks lub pob rov qab, txav ib lub cib thiab tau txais ib tug taw tes, li ntawd nws paub qhov no thiab ua li nws ntau zaus. Tom qab ob lub sij hawm 'xyaum, los yog hais txog 300 ua si, nws tau ua tiag zoo, zoo dua koj los yog kuv yuav puas tau yuav. ces, tom qab txog 600 ua si, tej yam uas tau spooky. Lub algorithm pib aiming nyob rau tib lub chaw, tshaj thiab tshaj, nyob rau hauv kev txiav txim rau nkag hauv cov kis los ntawm lub cib mus rau hauv lub qhov chaw hauv qab. Thaum muaj, raws li tej Breakout neeg uas ua ntawv paub, lub pob yuav thaws ib ncig ib pliag, sib sau ua ke free ntsiab lus. Nws yog ib tug zoo zoo hais tias cov computer tuaj nrog rau nws tus kheej.

"Thaum peb soj ntsuam pom no, uas ua tau tom lawv,"DeepMind tus CEO, Demis Hassabis, hais ib cov neeg tuaj saib ntawm ib tug technology rooj sab laj nyob rau hauv Paris. koj ua tau saib nws ua qauv qhia, heev, thiab hnov ​​tus tis thiab kev npuaj-tes thaum lub tshuab cov nuj nqis tawm nws burrowing zoo. Lub computer tau ua ntse, ib tug me ntsis zoo li peb.

"Dag txawj ntse" yog cia li hais txog tus hlob thiab feem ntau hyped ntawm tag nrho cov xam lub buzz nqe lus. Lub tswv yim twb xub mooted tiag los ntawm Alan Turing nyob rau hauv Xam Machinery Thiab txawj ntse, lub 1950 daim ntawv nyob rau hauv uas nws npaj dab tsi los ua lub npe hu ua lub Turing xeem: Yog hais tias ib lub tshuab yuav hais tau koj los ntawm kev sib tham hais tias nws yog tib neeg, nws tau ua dab tsi ntau li ntau raws li tej tib neeg yuav los ua pov thawj nws tiag tiag xav. Tab sis lub sij hawm AI twb tsis feem ntau yog siv kom txog thaum 1955, thaum American mathematician John McCarthy npaj ib tug lub rooj sib tham rau cov kws txawj. Qhov no coj qhov chaw nram qab no xyoo, thiab txij thaum ntawd lub teb tau khiav rau ib tug roughly ob-xyoo caum lub voj voog ntawm mania thiab tag kev cia siab. (Soj ntsuam ntawm txawm muaj ib tug tshiab lub sij hawm - "AI lub caij ntuj no" - mus piav qhia txog nws hnoos li no tawm ntawm fashion. Lub xyoo 1970 thiab Kwvyees li xyoo 1990 twb tshwj xeeb hnyav.)

Niaj hnub no muaj ib tug tshiab mania, uas zoo sib txawv los ntawm lwm tus: nws fits hauv koj hnab tshos. Ib tug xov tooj tau tuav lub ntiaj teb no chess yeej, paub txog zaj nkauj nyob rau hauv cov xov tooj cua thiab cov duab ntawm koj cov me nyuam, thiab txhais koj lub suab mus rau hauv lwm yam lus. Lub Nao neeg hlau pictured ntawm no nrog Yotam Ottolenghi yuav taug kev nyob rau hauv ob txhais ceg, hais lus, nrhiav ib lub pob thiab txawm seev cev. (Nws yog ib tug neeg hlau, tab sis yog, tsis AI: nws yuav tsis tau tsim ib tug ntawv qhia zaub mov.)

Rooj sib hais txog cov kev kho nyob rau hauv AI, koj tsis xav tau ib tug kws muaj txuj qhia rau koj yuav zoo siab heev, los yog ntshai. Koj cia li pib tau cov kev xav: txawj ntse nyob ntawm no. Kom meej meej Google tau txais cov kev xav, heev, vim hais tias nws yuav DeepMind rau ib tug rumored $ 650m. Nyob rau hauv 2013, Facebook launched nws tus kheej project, nrog kev pab them nqi los tsim lub ntsej muag thiab tej yam ntuj tso lus paub rau lub site. Developers twb pib ua hauj lwm rau ntse chatbots, uas Facebook cov neeg siv yuav muaj peev xwm mus hu siv nws cov tub txib cov kev pab.

Kom deb li deb, computers tsis tau "ntse" nyob rau hauv tag nrho cov, los yog tsuas yog narrowly li. Lawv twb tau zoo nyob ib qho yooj yim paub tab uas dazzle peb, xws li maths, tab sis phem cov neeg uas peb siv rau kev tso, uas tig mus ua tiag nyuaj. Cov ua los ntawm kev taug kev yog ib yam dab tsi niaj hnub robots kawm zoo li cov me nyuam mos thiab tseem nyuaj heev rau; yooj yim pottering paub tab nyob twj ywm nyob deb npau suav. "Ib tug piv txwv yog qhov yooj yim uas koj los yog kuv yuav ua kom ib lub khob ntawm cov tshuaj yej nyob rau hauv ib tug neeg lwm tus chav ua noj,"hais tias Xibfwb Alan Winfield, ib tug roboticist nyob rau University ntawm lub West ntawm ces. "Tsis muaj ib tug neeg hlau ntawm cov ntiaj chaw uas yuav ua li no."

Yuav kom to taub yog vim li cas ua tib neeg yog li ntawd tsis yooj yim, xav txog yuav ua li cas tej zaum koj yuav tau txais ib lub computer kom paub txog cov neeg los ntawm cov duab. Tsis muaj cov kabmob AI, koj yuav tsum paub yuav ua li cas koj yuav ua nws tus kheej ua ntej, nyob rau hauv kev txiav txim rau qhov kev pab cuam hauv lub computer. Koj yuav tsum sau thiab xav txog tag nrho cov tau cov qauv, xim thiab rho los ntawm ib sab, thiab yuav ua li cas lawv hloov nyob rau hauv lub teeb thiab nyob ces kaum sib txawv - thiab koj yuav tsum paub dab tsi tseem ceeb thiab yog dab tsi cia li muaj av nkos nyob rau hauv lub lens. nrog AI, koj tsis tas yuav piav qhia txog: koj cia li muab ib lub roob tiag tiag cov ntaub ntawv rau ib lub computer thiab cia nws kawm. Yuav ua li cas koj tsim cov kev kawm software tshua muaj esoteric teeb meem, hauv lub xeev ntawm ib tug ob peb nrhiav-tom qab lub computer zaum, tab sis nws yog tseeb lawv twb tau txais mus rau ib tug khiav los ntawm muaj kev xav, lug ntawm cov ntaub ntawv ua raws li dim de rau cov lug nyob rau hauv lub hlwb. (Qhov no yog hu ua "sib sib zog nqus kev kawm".) Raws li rau lub roob tiag tiag cov ntaub ntawv, zoo, tias yog dab tsi Google, Facebook, Amazon, Uber thiab tag nrho cov so tshwm sim tau dag ib ncig.

Rau ntawm no theem, peb tsis tau paub uas siv ntawm cov kabmob AI yuav tig tawm zoo tshaj plaws. Josh Newlan, ib tug California coder ua hauj lwm nyob rau hauv Shanghai, tau dhuav nrog mloog txom rooj sab laj hu, li ntawd nws ua ib co software mloog rau nws. Tam sim no, thaum twg Newlan lub npe yog hais, nws lub computer instantly xa nws ib tug tseem ceeb ntawm lub xeem ib nrab-feeb, waits 15 vib nas this, ces plays ib cov ntaubntawv povthawj ntawm nws hais tias, "Thov txim, Kuv tsis tau paub kuv microphone yog nyob rau hauv hais tsis tau lus. "Tsaib no, Josh Browder, ib tug British tub hluas, los ua ib tug free dag tus kws lij choj uas hais tiv thaiv cov chaw nres tsheb daim pib; nws npaj rau kev mus tsim lwm los coj cov neeg tawg rog los ntawm txawv teb chaws raws li txoj cai systems. Lub possibilities yog ... Zoo, tej zaum ib tug algorithm yuav suav cov possibilities.

Yog li ntawd yuav tshuab minds ib hnub outstrip peb tus kheej? Cov soj ntsuam ntawm kuv hais los yog ceev faj, thiab coj kev mob kev nkeeg mus sab laj txog dab tsi lawv cov cav tov ua tsis tau. Tab sis kuv txiav txim siab los muab tso rau AI txoj kev kuaj no: yuav nws npaj ib pluag mov li zoo li Ottolenghi? Tau nws pleev xim kuv portrait? Yog technology tseem artificially ntse - los yog nws pib yuav ntse, tiag?

Cov ua noj ua haus mus kuaj

Zoo, Kuv yuav hais tias nws tsis yog phev heev. Tib neeg tau txais kev pab kuv zuj zus. Txawm tias nyob rau hauv qhov tseeb lub npe uas IBM tus kws ua zaub mov Watson muab no tais ("Qaib siab Savory Sauce") yog hais txog li appetizing raws li nws tsim nyog.

Yuav kom ncaj ncees rau kws ua zaub mov Watson, thiab Tus Saib Xyuas Lis xaus tus kheej kws ua zaub mov-columnist Yotam Ottolenghi, Kuv tau muab lawv ib tug heev neeg ua hauj lwm. Kuv nug rau ib lub tais raws li nyob rau hauv plaub cov khoom xyaw uas seemed rau yuav tsis pom qhov twg nyob ze rau txhua lwm yam: nqaij qaib siab, Greek yoghurt, wasabi thiab tequila. Lawv yuav ntxiv xijpeem lwm lawv nyiam, tab sis cov neeg plaub yuav tsum tau nyob rau hauv lub tiav lawm zaub mov, uas kuv yuav ua noj thiab noj. Kws ua zaub mov Watson tsis yig, instantly muab kuv ob lub nplej zom cov kua ntsw. Ottolenghi yog ntau circumspect. "Thaum kuv tau txais cov kev sib tw kuv xav tias, 'Qhov no yog tsis mus ua hauj lwm,' "Nws qhia rau kuv.

Kuv xav tias cov tib. Los yog tsawg kawg yog kuv xav tias kuv yuav mus noj mov ob tais diav uas muaj kev tswj kom tau OK txawm lawv cov khoom xyaw, es vim hais tias ntawm lawv. Nyob rau hauv qhov tseeb - thiab koj yuav xav tias kuv ib tug nkag, tab sis li cas - Ottolenghi lub daim ntawv qhia yog ib tug tshwm sim: daim siab thiab dos thiab ib tug tequila yuav txo tau, ua hauj lwm nrog ib cov kua, qos liab, beetroot thiab chicory slaw, nrog ib tug wasabi thiab yoghurt hnav khaub ncaws. Lub tais tej zaum yuav ua rau me ntsis kev txiav txim zoo rau ntawm daim ntawv, tab sis kuv noj ib plateful xav hais tias txhua txhua lub caij tau koom. (Thiab vinaigrette nyeem tas nrog yoghurt thiab wasabi es tsis txhob ntawm mustard: tiag, muab rau nws ib zaug.) Ottolenghi qhia kuv hauv daim ntawv qhia no yog ib tug hwj txwv luv luv ntawm publishable.

Qhov no, uas tais coj nws thiab nws pab neeg peb hnub zoo tag nrho. Lawv muaj peev xwm mus saj thiab sib tham txog flavors, textures, xim, kub, nyob rau hauv ib txoj kev uas Watson tsis tau - txawm hais tias muaj "kev sib tham" txog ntxiv ib lub tswv yim mechanism rau yav tom ntej, Kws ua zaub mov Watson lub txhuas engineer, Florian Pinel, qhia kuv. "Ib tug daim ntawv qhia yog xws li ib tug complex tshaj plaws,"Ottolenghi hais tias. "Nws yog tsis yooj yim rau kuv txawm mus to taub yuav ua li cas ib tug computer yuav txoj kev ua nws."

Yotam Ottolenghi thiab kws ua zaub mov Watson lub tais diav
Yotam Ottolenghi thiab kws ua zaub mov Watson lub tais diav Duab: Jay Brooks rau tus saib xyuas

Watson twb xub ua los ntawm IBM los yeej muaj cov TV gameshow kovyeej! nyob rau hauv 2011. Nyob rau hauv ib co txoj kev uas nws yog ib tug dag ntxias sib tw, vim hais tias ib tug computer cov tawv ib feem ntawm ib xeem ntawv yog to taub cov lus nug, tsis paub cov lus teb; rau cov tib neeg, nws yog lwm tus txoj kev nyob ib ncig ntawm. Tab sis Watson yeej, thiab nws cov technology pib yuav tsum tau ua ntawv thov rau lwm qhov chaw, xws li raws li ib tug kws ua zaub mov, generating zaub mov txawv raws li nyob rau hauv 10,000 tiag tiag piv txwv coj los ntawm Bon Appetit magazine.

Thawj lub software yuav tsum tau "haus" cov zaub mov txawv, raws li cov Watson pab muab tso rau nws. Ib tug ntau ntawm caag mus rau hauv to taub dab tsi cov khoom xyaw tau, yuav ua li cas lawv twb npaj tau, ntev npaum li cas lawv twb siav rau, nyob rau hauv thiaj li yuav tau piav li cas rau siv nyob rau hauv tshiab tais diav. (Cov txheej txheem yuav tseem mus awry. Txawm tam sim no Kws ua zaub mov Watson xav tus muaj hu ua "Mollusk", uas nws helpfully piav yog "lub thib rau lub tag nrho-ntev album by Ween".)

Ib tug loj teeb meem twb sim muab lub tshuab ua ib siab saj. "Nws yog ib qho yooj yim txaus rau ib tug computer los tsim ib tug tshiab ua ke,"Pinel hais tias, "Tab sis yuav ua li cas yuav nws soj ntsuam ib?"Watson coj mus qhia rau xav txog txhua muaj raws li ib tug ua ke ntawm tej tsw tebchaw - uas muaj ntau txhiab - thiab ces muab cov khoom xyaw uas muaj tebchaw nyob rau hauv ntau. (Qhov no txoj ntsiab cai, khoom noj khoom haus pairing, yog zoo tsa nyob nrog tib neeg.) Thaum kawg, lub software generates step-by-step cov lus qhia uas ua rau kev nkag siab rau ib tug tib neeg ua noj. Qhov tseem ceeb yog nyob rau surprises es tswv yim noj mov npaj. "Kws ua zaub mov Watson yog tiag tiag muaj rau inspire koj,"Pinel piav. Txhua daim ntawv qhia los nrog lub ceeb toom rau "siv koj tus kheej muaj tswv yim thiab kev txiav txim".

Thiab kuv yuav tsum tau. Thawj kauj ruam yog "ci pav ca-nplooj zaub txhwb qaib", uas cia li tsis yog ib tug tswv yim zoo. Kuv tabtom ua, zoo, ib tug qeeb-siav spiced nqaij npuas thiab nqaij nyuj ragu, nrog rau tag nrho kuv plaub cov khoom xyaw, tsis tau Watson oddly kuj muaj xws li dib thiab yuav qhia kuv rau "lub caij nrog allspice", uas kuv tsis kam ua li rau hauv paus ntsiab lus. Nyob rau hauv lub kawg, Kuv muaj ib tug nplua nuj ntses nrog ib tug tsw es ze rau qhov farmyard, tab sis tsis uneatable. Kuv tsis tau saj cov wasabi los yog cov tequila, uas kuv zoo siab txog.

Yotam Ottolenghi nrog Nao neeg hlau
Yotam Ottolenghi nrog Nao neeg hlau qiv courtesy of Heber thawj lub tsev kawm ntawv, London. Duab: Jay Brooks. styling: Lee Flude

Watson yog ntse thiab cov neeg ua hauj lwm yog tawv, tab sis kuv yog npaj txhij hais tias qhov no yog tsis muaj ntau tshaj li ib tug me ntsis ntawm kev lom zem rau zaub mov nerds, kom txog rau thaum Ottolenghi lawm kuv. "Kuv xav tias lub tswv yim ntawm qeeb-ua noj ua haus lub siab nrog ib tug me ntsis ntawm cov nqaij yog zoo,"Nws hais tias. "Nws intensifies qhov tsw. Txhua yam yuav tuaj ua ke. Yog hais tias kuv yuav tsum tau pib afresh nrog no daim ntawv qhia, obviously lub yoghurt tsis haum - tab sis kuv yuav tawm hauv lub txiv kab ntxwv daim tawv nqaij muaj, ib ob peb ntawm cov txuj lom. Kuv tsis xav hais tias nws yog ib tug heev phem daim ntawv qhia. Nws yuav ua hauj lwm. "

Kev txiav txim Watson hides cov weirdness ntawm cov khoom xyaw, tab sis Ottolenghi ua rau lawv hu nkauj.

Cov kev sau ntawv xeem

muab me ntsis Wordsmith tom ntej no mus rau lub fearsome machines ntawm IBM thiab Google, thiab nws zoo li computationally advanced raws li ib tug hnab tshos xam zauv. Tsis tau thaum Watson fumbles los ntawm nws cov kev kawm, Wordsmith yog twb nyob rau hauv kev ua hauj lwm. Yog hais tias koj nyeem ua lag luam Tshuag ceeb toom los ntawm lub Associated Xovxwm, los yog Yahoo txoj kev ua si journalism, muaj yog ib tug zoo lub caij nyoog koj yuav xav hais tias lawv tau sau los ntawm ib tug neeg.

Wordsmith yog ib tug dag txawj sau ntawv. Tsim los ntawm ib lub tuam txhab nyob rau hauv North Carolina hu ua Automated Insights, nws plucks lub feem ntau nthuav nuggets los ntawm ib tug dataset thiab siv lawv rau kev teeb tsa ib tsab xov xwm (los yog email, los yog cov khoom qhia ntawv). Thaum nws los nyob yeej loj xov xwm, nws yuav siv ntau emotive lus. Nws txawv diction thiab syntax yuav ua nws cov hauj lwm ntau tshwmsim. Txawm tias ib tug clumsy neeg hlau kws ua zaub mov yuav muaj nws kev siv, tab sis sau ntawv rau tib neeg nyeem yuav tsum yuav tus. Hooked mus txog ib lub suab-paub ntaus ntawv xws li Amazon lub Echo, Wordsmith txawm teb rau ib tug hais tib neeg lo lus nug - txog qhov kev kawm ntawm ib tus nqis peev uas, hais - nrog ib tug thoughtfully hais lus teb, tshaj tawm dab tsi yog nthuav thawj, thiab tawm hauv tawm dab tsi yog tsis nthuav ntawm tag nrho cov. Yog hais tias koj tsis tau paub qhov ua kom yuam, koj yuav xav tias cov ntaub ntawv 9000 twb los txog.

Qhov ua kom yuam no: Wordsmith puas rau ib feem ntawm kev sau ntawv hais tias cov neeg tsis paub yog ib qho yooj yim. Locky Stewart los ntawm Automated Insights muab kuv ib tug tutorial. Koj sau rau hauv Wordsmith ib kab lus xws li, "New ABC nuj nqis qhia tau tias tus New York Inquirer tus kev sawv 3% nyob rau hauv lub Plaub Hlis. "Ces koj ua si nyob ib ncig ntawm. Lub 3% tau los ntawm koj cov ntaub ntawv, yog li ntawd koj xaiv lo lus "sawv" thiab sau ib txoj cai, paub raws li ib tug "ceg", uas yuav hloov tau cov lo lus "sawv" rau cov lus "tua" yog hais tias qhov feem pua ​​yog ntau tshaj 5%. Ces koj ceg "rose" ua "poob" yog hais tias qhov feem pua ​​yog tsis zoo. Yog hais tias qhov feem pua ​​yog -5% los yog tsawg, "Sawv" yuav "plummeted".

Ces koj pub nws txhais. Yog li ntawd "plummeted" tau kuj yuav "poob sharply los ntawm". "Lub Inquirer tus kev" yuav ua tau "kev nyob rau Inquirer". "Txhaj tshuaj li" yuav "soared" thiab thiaj li nyob. Ces koj ntxiv ntau kab lus, tej zaum txog online tsheb, los yog hais txog tej uas hnub sau cov ntawv luam muag zoo tshaj plaws, los yog hais txog kev sib piv xyoo-on-xyoo. Ces koj tau txais ntse. Koj qhia rau Wordsmith rau muab tso rau lub kab lus nrog rau feem ntau newsworthy ntaub ntawv ua ntej, txhais tej zaum raws li cov neeg uas feature tus loj tshaj feem pua ​​hloov. Tej zaum koj ntxiv ib tug ceg mus hais tias ib tug tshwm sim yog "qhov zoo tshaj plaws / phem tshaj kev kawm ntawm cov zoo lub npe". ntuj raug txim, koj muaj peev xwm txawm qhia nws ib co qub Fleet Street tricks, yog li ntawd, yog hais tias kev plummets daim pib "Editor Charles Kane yog txojkev tsiv thuam raws li", tab sis yog tias kev muaj "tua" no yuav "Charles Kane tau silenced critics nrog cov xov xwm hais tias". Ntxig "ntau" los yog "dua" los yog "tseem" yog hais tias koj tau txais tib yam nkaus li ob lub hlis nyob rau hauv ib tug kab.

"Lub dag txawj ntse yog ua tau rau cov tib neeg txawj ntse hais tias yog nws tsim tau lub network ntawm logic,"Stewart hais tias, "Tib network koj yuav siv thaum sau ntawv ib zaj dab neeg. Nws yuav muaj tau tsim 10 los yog 15 xyoo dhau los, nyob rau hauv code, tab sis yuav ua rau nws ua hauj lwm nyob rau ntawm no scale tau tsuas ua tau lately. "Kom meej meej nws yuav siv sij hawm ntev los npaj ib tsab xov xwm nyob rau hauv Wordsmith tshaj sau ib conventionally, tab sis thaum koj twb ua li ntawd, lub computer yuav luam tawm tsab ib tug tshiab xov xwm kev dab neeg txhua txhua lub hlis, nyob rau txhua txhua cov ntawv xov xwm, hauv vib nas this ntawm tau txais cov ntaub ntawv. Nws muaj peev xwm luam tawm lab ntawm cov dab neeg nyob rau hauv feeb - los yog luam tawm xwb lawv ib txhia, Yog hais tias cov ntaub ntawv tsis tau muaj ib tug muab chaw pib ntawm newsworthiness. Yog li ntawd nws yuav ib tug cia li editor, heev, nrog adjustable tastes nyob rau hauv thoroughness, zaus thiab hysteria.

Rau Wordsmith txoj hauj lwm, Kuv hais football: nws yog ib tug teb hais tias ua ib tug ntau ntawm cov ntaub ntawv thiab muaj ib tug readership xav tus kheej cov khoom. Tus Saib Xyuas football txawj sau ntawv Yakhauj Steinberg tuaj pab dawb rau noj nyob rau hauv lub computer, thiab kuv muab ib lub rooj ntawm cov lus tseeb los ntawm tsis ntev los no Premier League: xeem rau lub caij lub pab koomtes txoj hauj lwm thiab lub caij no txoj hauj lwm ntawm Christmas thiab nyob rau thaum xaus, cov hom phiaj scored thiab conceded, sab saum toj scorer lub npe thiab tag nrho cov, tus nqi ntawm lub caij ntuj sov kev hloov tsheb thiab ib tsocai los ntawm tus neeg saib xyuas.

Ua hauj lwm thiaj tau tuaj los ntawm cov ntaub ntawv, computer thiab tib neeg txhua tus sau ib tug saib xyuas ntawm lub caij rau ib tug muab qws. Steinberg xaiv Leicester City rau lub hauv paus hais tias nws cov xov tooj yuav tsum muaj ib zaj dab neeg hais tias leej twg yuav saib. Wordsmith tsis yuav tsum tau xaiv. Nws yuav ua txhua 20.

Thiab nyob rau hauv qhov tseeb ob lub computer thiab tib neeg sai sai tsim heev uas zoo sib xws ua hauj lwm:

Leicester City footballer Jamie Vardy

Ob Steinberg thiab Wordsmith xa ua txoj ua ntej ua ke. Tej zaum ntse suab qhabnias, Automated Insights siv ib co ntse tricks rau muab tso rau lawm rau hauv lub caij nyoog kawg no tus tsab xov xwm, astutely guessing uas Leicester tau "hoping kom tiav nyob rau hauv lub saum toj 10 tom qab ib tug 14th qhov chaw finish xeem rau lub caij ". Kuv saib los ntawm Wordsmith lwm cov khoom thiab cov Southampton, muaj tiav lawm xya xeem rau lub caij, muaj "ob lub qhov muag nyob rau hauv ib tug European chaw", thaum Manchester City "pib lub caij dreaming ntawm ib pab koomtes title tom qab tag thib ob".

conversely, Steinberg digs ntau tiag tiag mus rau hauv lub xov tooj, uas qhia tias Jamie Vardy tsis tau tsuas yog tau qhab nia 24 cov hom phiaj, tab sis hais tias qhov no yog ib tug ntau dua feem pua ​​ntawm nws pab neeg lub hom phiaj tshaj twb tswj los ntawm tag nrho tab sis ob tug lwm players. Paub li cas Wordsmith ua hauj lwm, ntawm chav kawm, ib tug yuav tau yooj yim teem nws mus ua ib yam. Nyob rau hauv qhov tseeb saib los ntawm nws, Steinberg tag nrho hauv tsab xov xwm yuav muaj tau tsim los ntawm ib tug neeg txawj Wordsmith programmer - nrog rau cov kev zam ntawm ib tug kab. "Nws yog ib tug tej yam yees siv lub caij,"Nws quotes cov Leicester saib xyuas raws li hais, ua ntej yuav muab, "Justifiably li, muab hais tias lub caij ntuj sov siv ntawm £ 26.7m rau kev hloov tsheb ua rau lawv lub yim qis tshaj spenders ". Hais tias "justifiably li" qhia tau hais tias ib tug txawj sau ntawv uas ua tau to taub dab tsi nws yog sau ntawv.

Kev txiav txim Steinberg yog ib tug zoo npaum li cas txawj sau ntawv, tshwj tsis yog tias koj xav 20 cov ntaub ntawv-hnyav khoom nyob rau hauv 10 feeb.

Cov painting xeem

Ib tug laptop xav kom kuv luag ntxhi. "Nws yog nyob rau hauv ib tug zoo mus ob peb vas," Simon Colton hais tias. Nws paub vim hais tias nws yog tus paub txog uas programmed nws. Peb yog nyob rau hauv lub Science tsev cia puav pheej nyob rau hauv London, qhov twg lub Painting ruam, raws li nws yog hu ua, yog muab ib tug pej xeem ua qauv qhia. Nws yog ib qho tseem ceeb hais tias kuv tsis qhia kuv cov hniav, Colton hais tias, vim hais tias ib yam dab tsi txog cov teeb ua rau lawv saib ntsuab mus rau lub Painting ruam.

Ntawm kuv toothless luag lub laptop tsim ib tug "conception" ntawm yog dab tsi nws xav pleev xim, raws li nyob rau hauv nws cov mus ob peb vas. Cov mus ob peb vas los ntawm ib tug "sentiment tsom xam" ntawm tsis ntev los no Tus Saib Xyuas cov khoom, raws li nws tshwm sim (nyob rau nruab nrab nyeem ntawv tus saib xyuas yog ib tug downer, Thaj, sib nrug los ntawm cov khoom hais txog teb). Nag hmo lub xib taw yog nyob rau hauv xws li ib tug phem mus ob peb vas hais tias nws xa ib tug neeg deb unpainted; niaj hnub no nws yog koj "zoo".

Tom ntej no cov ruam npaj rau xim nrog ib tug simulated txhuam thiab ib tug simulated txhais tes (ua tau, ib cov duab ntawm Colton txhais tes) rau qhov kev tshuaj ntsuam tom qab kuv. Nws kawm tau mus cuam tshuam nws mus ob peb vas ntawm tus ua hauj lwm ntawm thiab Ventura, lwm lub computer paub txog, ntawm Brigham Young University nyob rau hauv Utah, uas kawm ib neural network kom paub txog cov kev xav cwj pwm ntawm cov dluab ntawm zaum txhiab tus neeg nyob rau hauv pem hauv ntej ntawm kaum tawm txhiab tus paintings thiab hais kom lawv tag txhua ib tug nrog txawm adjectives tuaj rau lub siab. Cov xib taw tam sim no paub hais tias qaim xim muaj kev cuam tshuam ib tug zoo mus ob peb vas, thiab "tus cwj mem qhuav uas muaj hau kaw daug lawm" tsim ib daim duab uas yog "khaub thuas". Thaum nws yog ua li cas, nws prints tawm ib nplooj ntawv nrog ib tug ntaus nws tus kheej-soj ntsuas ntaub ntawv. "Zuag qhia tag nrho, qhov no yog ib tug heev kaj portrait,"Nws hais tias. "Qhov ntawd yog qhov lawv xav tshuaj, tab sis kuv style tau nws txo qis cov qib kev kaj lug nyob ntawm no. Li ntawd, kuv yog ib tug me ntsis khib txog tias. "

Ntawm no nrog rau peb, intrigued tab sis ntau dhau tibneeg hu tauj coob nyob rau ntawm nws easel mus saib, yog Sarah Jane hli, ib tug artist uas exhibits nrog lub Muaj koob muaj npe Society of Portrait Painters. Nws tsis xav pom kuv cov hniav, yog. "Peb pleev xim los ntawm lub neej,"Nws hais tias, "Thiab koj yuav tsis tuav lub luag rau zaum saum zaum. Yog vim li cas tag nrho cov tsoos portraits qhia heev relaxed nta. "

Cov Painting ruam yog ib tug tshwj xeeb tshuab, thiab txawm me ntsis nto moo, tab sis kuv yuav tsis tsis kam hais tias hli yog yuav luag tag nrho cov ntawm vim li cas kuv pog mus yuav tau no. Cov kev xav ntawm raug pleev xim rau los ntawm ib tug neeg tiag tiag, muaj lawv saib koj thiab xav txog koj, yog exciting thiab flattering. Sentiment tsom xam thiab kev cob qhia cov ntaub ntawv, nyob rau lwm yam tes, txhob ntxiv rau txhua yam uas uas nws pom kuv kuv tu txog, thiab hauv lub tiav lawm portraits tsis hloov kuv lub siab. Hli ntawd yog ib tug zoo ntxim nyiam kawg, tiag, uas pom tau tias ncaj tseg xws li ib tug neeg pom los ntawm lwm. Cov xib taw peb kev yuav zoo kuv nyiam, tiam sis feem ntau lawv zoo li cov duab uas tau ploj mus los ntawm ib co zoo ntawm software lim. Colton insists lub xib taw yog no "mus kawm kom tau zoo dua" tab sis kuv saib thiab xav hais tias: ces dab tsi?

Painting ntawm Leo Benedictus los ntawm Sarah Jane hli
Leo Benedictus raws li pom los ntawm Sarah Jane hli ...
Painting ntawm Leo Benedictus los ntawm cov Painting ruam computer
... thiab raws li xav los ntawm lub Painting ruam laptop. Duab: Murray Ballard

Ces kuv xav tias ib co ntau. Rau ib tug tshaj plaws, nws hloov tawm hais tias kev kos duab yog ntau cov neeg kho tshuab tshaj kuv pom tau hais. "Kuv sim mus saib nyob rau Leo li ib tug paub daws teeb txheej ntawm cov duab, ntaub ntawv, xim, tones,"Hli qhia Colton, "Mus tau deb ntawm qhov tseeb hais tias tus ntawd yog ib lub qhov ntswg. Vim hais tias thaum twg koj pib ua li ntawd, koj tau ntes tau nyob rau hauv dab tsi koj xav zoo li ib lub qhov ntswg. "

"Yuav ua li cas lub software tsis yog lov nws mus rau hauv cov xim cheeb tsam,"Colton hais tias.

"Yog, raws nraim,"Hli pom zoo. "Kuv xav hais tias yog dab tsi qhov zoo tshaj plaws painters ua. Nws yog transcribing. "Tom qab nws qhia rau kuv tias nws muaj ib yam ntawm cov" kinship "nrog rau cov software raws li lawv ua hauj lwm sab los ntawm sab.

paub ntau ntxiv tseem, Kuv twb paub lawm tias dab tsi tseem ceeb yog tsis ua li cas lub tshuab xim; nws yog yuav ua li cas kuv pom. Hli Kuv to taub, Kuv xav tias. Nws yog ib tug neeg thiab kuv paub yuav ua li cas uas pom tau tias, li ntawd kuv thiaj mob siab txog nws daim duab. Tab sis li cas yog nws xav tias zoo li yuav tsum tau tus Painting ruam? Yog tias yog dab tsi nws portraits yog sim qhia rau kuv?

Kev txiav txim Hli lub painting yog nyob deb richer; lub xib taw yog tseem kawm thiab tau centuries ntawm kev xyaum mus.

Tus neeg txhais lus kuaj

Google txhais yog tus thawj daim ntawm zoo science ntawv tseeb tuaj yeej muaj tseeb, thiab nws yog ib tug twb tau xyoo caum qub. Nyob rau hauv ntau txoj kev uas nws cim qhov twg AI tau ces. pab, paub tseeb tias; impressive, tsis muaj lo lus nug; tab sis tseem clunky li ntuj raug txim, txawm loj txhim kho.

Yog hais tias koj tsis tau siv nws, nws ua hauj lwm zoo li no: nkag mus ntawv nyeem los yog web mus nyob rau hauv ib yam ntawm cov 103 lus txhawb thiab koj tau txais ib tug ntxhib translation vib nas this tom qab ntawd nyob rau hauv ib yam ntawm cov lwm leej lwm tus. Lub app rau koj lub xov tooj yuav Hour koj hais dab tsi thiab ces hais lus rov qab, txhais (32 lus); nws yuav hloov cov ntawv nyeem ntawm ib tug txawv teb chaws lus kos npe rau los yog ntawv qhia zaub mov peb txog qhov twg koj taw tes rau lub koob yees duab. Tsis piav uas yuav tsum tau ntawm yuav ua li cas txias uas yog (thiab nws yog free).

tas, ib nrab ib billion neeg siv Google Txhais txhua lub hli, feem ntau cov neeg uas tsis hais lus Askiv (uas yog 80% ntawm cov neeg) tab sis leej twg xav kom to taub lub hauv internet (uas yog 50% English). "Feem ntau ntawm peb cov kev loj hlob, thiab ua tau feem ntau ntawm peb cov tsheb, los los ntawm kev tsim los yog tawm kev lag luam xws li Brazil, Indonesia, Is Nrias teb, Thaib teb,"Hais tias Npala Turovsky, lub taub hau ntawm cov khoom tswj thiab cov neeg siv kev nyob Google Txhais. Nws yog kuj ceeb tias nrov rau sib tam, heev, nws ntxiv. "Tej yam uas zoo li 'kuv hlub koj' thiab 'Koj muaj zoo nkauj ob lub qhov muag', hais tias yog heev tus nais khu. "

Lub software yeej ib txwm siv ib daim ntawv ntawm statistical tshuab kev kawm: scouring hauv internet rau twb txhais text - UN tshaj tawm, EU cov ntaub ntawv - thiab kuas yuav ntawm tej lo lus thiab cov nqe lus coj mus rau ib tug lwm. Cov ntaub ntawv uas sib sau, zoo dua nws tau txais, tab sis cov kev txhim kho leveled tawm ib tug ob peb xyoos dhau los. Tsis ntev, Turovsky hais tias, lawv yuav deploy tshiab sib sib zog nqus kawm algorithms, uas yuav tsim ntau npaum li cas paub txhais.

txawm li ntawd, muaj kev txwv, thiab ib co zoo li yuav tsum muaj thaum koj hais lus rau ib tug tib neeg txhais lus thiab paub yuav ua li cas hloov maj mam lawv ua hauj lwm yog. Ros Schwartz thiab Anne de Freyman pab kev ua hauj lwm. Ob leeg yog kev Fabkis / English txhais, thiab kuv yuav tsum tau ob vim hais tias, nyob rau hauv kev txiav txim los txiav txim yuav ua li cas zoo tus neeg txhais lus yog tsis tau paub nyob rau hauv ob yam lus qhia, peb yuav tsum tau txhais ob zaug - ib zaug tawm ntawm lus Askiv mus rau hauv Fabkis, ib zaug rov qab dua. Google Txhais yuav tsis muaj cim xeeb ntawm cov thawj thiab yuav ua tib yam li.

Kuv yuav xaiv ib luv luv zaj ntawm yus tab sis tsis tshwj xeeb tshaj yog cov tsiaj qus los yog tsis meej xwm prose los ntawm thaum pib ntawm Herzog los ntawm Xa-u nqov. Neeg txhais lus nquag yuav tsum tau cov ntsiab lus teb, li ntawd kuv thiaj qhia rau Schwartz thiab De Freyman hais tias nws los ntawm ib tug naas ej nruab nrab-xyoo pua American tshiab.

Tsis pub dhau ob peb hnub, Schwartz thiab De Freyman rov qab ib tug heev tus facsimile ntawm cov ntawv nyeem. Ntawm no thiab muaj ib co nuances tsis tau dim, tab sis cov zaj tseem yog ib tug zoo nyeem, thiab lub ntsiab txhais tuaj nyob raws nraim.

Google Txhais yuav siv sij hawm xwb ob peb lub vib nas this, thiab cov kev tshwm sim yog ob qho tib si impressive thiab tsis txaus, weirdly zoo nyob rau hauv qhov chaw, nyob rau hauv lwm tus neeg weirdly phem - txoj siav "nws" rau hauv "nws" thiab concocting lub tswv yim tias Herzog yog nyob rau hauv kev hlub. txuj ci tseem ceeb, nws yuav "tawg" raws li ib tug piav qhia ntawm tus hero. Fabkis twb tsis muaj lo lus hais tias combines cov kev txiav txim zoo ntawm "tawg" thiab "npau taws" uas tawg coveys nyob rau hauv lus Askiv, li ntawd, De Freyman ua rau nws "cinglé", uas rov qab los los ntawm Schwartz li "vwm".

"Google Txhais yuav saib statistical probability thiab hais tias, dab tsi 'tawg' txhais li cas?"Turovsky piav. "Thiab cov lus, nws yuav sim los txiav txim seb nws txhais tau tias 'tawg' los yog 'vwm' los xijpeem. uas, rau ib lub tshuab, yog ib tug uas tsis yog-tsis tseem ceeb ua hauj lwm. "Tsis yog nws yooj yim rau ib tug tib neeg, txawm tias peb nrhiav tau nws yooj yim. Koj yuav tau mus nug seb nqov yuav tau meant tias Herzog twb "tawg" raws li nyob rau hauv lub cev fractured. Ces koj yuav tau xav tias tsis, vim hais tias tib neeg lub cev ua tsis tau feem ntau ua li ntawd. Yog li ntawd koj xav xav li cas nws ho txhais li cas thiab xav tias es tsis txhob, Yog hais tias koj twb tsis tau paub nrog lub pab, hais tias nws yuav tsum txhais hais tias "vwm", vim hais tias koj to taub tus so ntawm dab tsi koj twb nyeem. Tab sis yuav ua li cas tag nrho cov no, yuav tsis Google txhais yuav tsum tau zoo nkauj npaum li cas tiam sis, kuv nug? Turovsky luag. "Kuv tsis xav tias kuv tsim nyog rau teb cov lus nug."

Kev txiav txim Ib txhia bullseyes thiab howlers los ntawm Google Txhais, thaum Schwartz thiab De Freyman yog txawj thiab caij nyoog.

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