Txhua yam koj yuav tsum paub txog gravitational Tsis

Everything You Need to Know about Gravitational Waves

Amid taug xaiv tias ib tug US observatory yuav tshaj tawm rau hnub Thursday tias lawv tau kuaj pov thawj ntawm gravitational tsis, ntawm no yog tus yuam sij ntaub ntawv


Powered by Guardian.co.ukQhov tsab xov xwm hu ua “Saib no spacetime: gravitational yoj foundations tsum” raug sau los ntawm Ian Sample Science editor, rau Tus Saib Xyuas rau hnub Tuesday 9 Lub ob hlis ntuj 2016 15.59 UTC

A xyoo-ntev nrhiav gravitational tsis yog yuav tsum mus xaus rau hauv kev kovyeej lub lim tiam no thaum zaum hais tias lawv muaj sab ripples nyob rau hauv cov ntaub ntawm spacetime, tejzaum nws tsim los ntawm tus kev sib tsoo ntawm ob loj heev dub qhov mus txawv tebchaws nyob ze rau cov kev ceev ntawm lub teeb.

Thawj kwv yees los ntawm Einstein, thiab generated los ntawm cov feem ntau cataclysmic cov txheej xwm nyob rau hauv lub cosmos, gravitational tsis ncav thiab nyem qhov chaw thiab tag nrho cov nyob hauv nws raws li lawv kis tau tawm thoob plaws lub qab ntuj khwb. lawv foundations, yog paub tseeb hais tias, yog tej yam yuav khwv tau ib tug Nobel nqi zog.

Zaum tau hunted rau cov cim qhia ntawm lub vuag rau xyoo, tab sis, thaum tam sim no, lawv sim tau lawm tag kev cia siab los ntawm cuav Pib ntsais koj teeb thiab seev uas tsis rhiab txaus los xyuas txog cov tsis los ntawm lub sij hawm lawv mus txog lub ntiaj teb.

Uas yuav tsum tau hloov rau hnub Thursday, thaum physicists nyob rau hauv lub US qhia lawv tseeb cov ntaub ntawv los ntawm ib tug xyaum ua tej yam hu ua LIGO, los yog cov Advanced Laser Interferometer gravitational-Wave Observatory. Cov pab neeg muaj detectors nyob rau hauv Washington thiab Louisiana uas yuav hnov ​​dua gravitational tsis ntawm lub minuscule hloov nyob rau hauv ntev lawv tsim nyob rau hauv ob 4km-ntev kav.

Thaum ib tug xovxwm rooj sab laj nyob rau hauv Washington, LIGO zaum no xav mus qhia ib tug ntshiab, unambiguous gravitational yoj teeb liab. Tej zaum nws yuav muaj tau los ntawm ob loj heev dub qhov, ib tug 29 lub sij hawm ntau loj heev tshaj lub hnub, rau lwm 36 lub sij hawm ntau loj heev, spiraling nyob ib ncig ntawm txhua lwm yam thiab thaum kawg crashing ua ke tsim tau ib cov tshiab dub qhov 62 lub sij hawm qhov loj ntawm lub hnub. Rau tag nrho nws cov heft, lub cev tshiab tej zaum yuav tsis muaj ntau tshaj li 200 mais dav.

Cov uas ploj lawm loj – sib npaug rau cov peb suns, los yog rau trillion trillion kilotonnes – hloov dua siab tshiab mus ua lub zog thiab tso tawm raws li lub gravitational tsis LIGO yog ntseeg kom tau kuaj.

"Cov neeg yog hugely pog. Cov lus xaiv yog hais tias nws yog ib tug whopping loj teeb liab, nyob rau hauv lwm yam lus, nws yog unambiguous, thiab hais tias yog zoo heev,"Hais tias Pedro Ferreira, xib fwb ntawm astrophysics hauv Oxford University, thiab sau ntawm lub 2014 phau ntawv, Lub zoo meej Theory: ib xyoo pua ntawm geniuses thiab cov sib ntaus sib tua tshaj general Relativity.

Thaum Einstein luam tawm nws kev tshawb xav ntawm lub tuam Relativity nyob rau hauv 1915, nws hloov mus ib txhis yuav ua li cas zaum saib lub qab ntuj khwb. Qhov kev tshawb xav pom tias loj ua spacetime nkhaus, ib cov nyhuv uas muaj ib tug tibneeg ntau ntau cov hniav. ib tug, hais tias lub teeb los ntawm nyob deb hnub qub yuav khoov ib ncig ntawm lub hnub, twb paub tseeb hais tias los ntawm Arthur Eddington thaum lub sij hawm lub hnub ci dab noj hnub ntawm 1919.

Cov nrhiav kom tau ntawm gravitational tsis yuav zuam tawm ntawm lub xeem loj twv ua ntej ntawm lub tuam Relativity. Nws yuav qhia tau hais tias qhov sib npaug twv los ntawm Einstein, uas tsis kam mus ntseeg nyob rau hauv dub qhov nws tus kheej, tuav muaj tseeb nyob rau hauv dab tsi Qib raws li lub feem ntau huab realm ntawm physics.

Tab sis muaj ntau tshaj rau cov discovery ntawm gravitational tsis tshaj tsuas ua pov thawj lawv muaj nyob. Yog hais tias lub LIGO teeb liab yog raws li muaj zog raws li taug xaiv hais, tshiab seev yuav tau ua mus ntes ntiajteb txawj nqus tsis los ntawm colliding dub qhov thiab lwm yam kev hugely nquag txheej xwm thoob plaws lub qab ntuj khwb.

"Nws yuav zoo ib yam li muaj ib tug tsom iav raj uas, es tsis txhob saib tej khoom nyob rau hauv lub electromagnetic spectrum, nrhiav rau lawv nrog gravitational tsis,"Hais tias Ferreira. "Peb yuav pom tej yam nyob rau hauv ib tug txawv kiag li txoj kev. Nws yuav heev qhov muag plooj tsis pom kev – gravitational tsis yog tsis zoo rau pinpointing khoom – tab sis lawv yuav pab peb to taub li cas thaum dub qhov HS poob mus rau hauv ib leeg. "

"Qhov tseeb yog thaum twg peb twb ntsia lub qab ntuj khwb nyob rau hauv txoj kev tshiab, nrog x-rays, nrog lub xov tooj cua tsis, peb twb sab kawg khoom, exotica. Yog li ntawd qhov no yog yuav qhib tau lub qhov rai tshiab, thiab rau paub tseeb tias peb yuav nrhiav tau bizarre khoom,"Nws ntxiv.

Rumours hais tias cov LIGO pab tau kuaj gravitational tsis tau circulating nyob rau hauv lub astrophysics zej zog rau lub hlis. Tab sis ntau soj ntsuam ntawm twb tsis ntseeg thiab ntshai cov taug xaiv tej zaum yuav tau sparked los ntawm cov khoom cua Pib ntsais koj teeb uas yog ntxiv rau cov ntaub ntawv los ntsuam xyuas pab neeg IEP tus analytical cov txheej txheem.

"Tom qab tag nrho cov xaiv tshaj yav dhau los ob peb lub hlis kuv yeej xav kom lawv mus tshaj tawm ib tug nrhiav kom tau nyob rau ntawm no point,"Hais tias Alberto Sesana, ib tug tshawb nyob rau hauv University of Birmingham lub gravitational Wave Group. "Peb yuav tsum dais nyob rau hauv lub siab hais tias LIGO yog ib tug xyaum ua tej yam thiab tsuas yog ib tug uas yuav ntes xws qhov chaw. Yog hais tias lawv yuav tau kuaj gravitational tsis, nws yuav tsis tau paub tseeb hais tias los ntawm lwm lub twj paj nruag, thiab hais tias yog yeej ib txwm ib qhov teeb meem. Tab sis lawv tau ceev faj heev nyob rau hauv koj ua qhov no kom zoo. Kuv ntseeg lawv muaj tseeb thiab muaj zog ua tim khawv txog nws. "

Muaj yog ib lub caij nyoog ib lub teeb liab yuav muab tshaj tawm los ntawm lwm qhov chaw, xws li ib tug khub uas neutron hnub qub spinning nyob ib ncig ntawm ib leeg, los yog ib tug neutron lub hnub qub poob mus rau ib tug dub qhov. Tab sis xws li cosmic txheej xwm yuav tau ua kom tsim weaker Pib ntsais koj teeb dua lub loj ntev zaum xav tias yuav lub LIGO pab neeg mus qhia.

Zaum tau tshaj tawm hais tias lub foundations ntawm gravitational tsis ua ntej xwb los tau lawv cia siab dashed. Nyob rau hauv 2014, soj ntsuam ntawm nyob rau hauv ib tug xyaum ua tej yam hu ua Bicep2 thov kom muaj nyob pov thawj rau gravitational tsis los ntawm lub loj bang, tab sis ntxiv tsom xam los ntawm lwm pawg pom tias cov Pib ntsais koj teeb lawv khaws yuav tau nkaus piav los ntawm qhov chaw hmoov av cov teeb liab ntsais nrog lawv ntsuam.

Ulrich Sperhake, ib tug theorist ntawm Cambridge University uas kawm yuav ua li cas gravitational tsis yog generated los ntawm dub qhov, hais tias lub zej zog yog heev zoo siab thiab expectant. "Kuv tsis paub leej twg nyob rau hauv lub teb uas xav kom ib yam dab tsi lwm yam tshaj li ib tug nrhiav kom tau yuav tsum tau tshaj tawm,"Nws hais. "Txhua yam tab sis qhov pib ntawm ib tug tshiab era nyob rau hauv observational gravitational astronomy yuav tuaj raws li ib tug loj surprise rau hnub Thursday, tab sis muaj tseem yog ib tug me me speculative caij rau nws kom txog thaum peb yuav muaj lub official LIGO tshaj tawm. "

Martin Hendry, ib tug tswv cuab ntawm lub LIGO pab neeg ntawm Glasgow University, yuav tsis tau twv rau lub ntsiab lus ntawm Thursday, lub tshaj tawm. "Kuv yuav tsis hais dab tsi ntxiv rau hauv no theem tshaj tos thiab saib. Los yog yuav tsum hais tias yuav "saib no spacetime?"Nws hais.

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