Lub hlwb cog Pab Paralysed txiv neej

Brain Implant Helps Paralysed Man

Pioneering neural bypass tso cai nti nyob rau hauv lub hlwb xa Pib ntsais koj teeb leeg nyob rau hauv lub dab teg thiab cov ntiv tes, ua nws tau mus so ib daim ntawv thiab ua si Guitar Hero


Powered by Guardian.co.ukQhov tsab xov xwm hu ua “Lub hlwb cog pab tuag tes tuag taw txiv neej rov nrab tswj ntawm nws txhais tes” raug sau los ntawm Ian Sample Science editor, rau theguardian.com on Wednesday 13th April 2016 17.00 UTC

Ib tug 24-xyoo-laus tug txiv neej uas twb tuag tes tuag taw nyob rau hauv cov kev huam yuaj rau xyoo dhau los tau regained ib co tswj ntawm nws txhais tes uas siv ib tug cog uas xa Pib ntsais koj teeb ntawm nws lub hlwb ncaj qha mus rau cov nqaij ntshiv uas tsiv nws lub dab teg thiab cov ntiv tes.

Paub raws li ib tug neural bypass, lub cog tso cai Ian Burkhart rau los so ib daim credit card, ua si lub video ua si, guitar Hero, thiab ua tej yam ua xws li khaws ib lub raj mis thiab pouring lub txheem, tuav ib tug xov tooj mus rau nws lub pob ntseg, thiab stirring ib khob. Nws yog thawj thawj tus ua tau txais txiaj ntsim los ntawm cov technology.

Burkhart, los ntawm Dublin, Ohio, yog nyob rau hauv ib tug puam nyiaj so koobtsheej noj peb caug rau thaum xaus ntawm nws thawj thawj xyoo nyob rau hauv tsev kawm qib siab thaum nws dived rau hauv ib tug yoj uas dumped nws mus rau ib tug thaum sandbar. nws yog 19, tsis tshua muaj neeg ywj siab, thiab tsis tau xam tau tias yog hais tias xws li ib tug kev huam yuaj yuav ntaus nws.

Tus quab yuam ntawm tej yam tub Burkhart lub caj dab ntawm lub C5 theem. Nws yuav tseem txav nws txhais tes rau ib co raws li, tab sis nws ob txhais tes thiab ob txhais ceg yog puas. Cov phooj ywg rub nws tawm ntawm cov dej thiab tsa lub tswb. los ntawm lub caij nyoog, ib tug tawm-duty fireman yog nyob rau hauv lub puam thiab hu ua paramedics.

Burkhart muaj txoj kev kho rau cov kev raug mob nrog ib pab neeg ntawm cov kws kho mob ntawm Ohio State University. Los ntawm qhov pib, nws yog cia siab hais tias kev kho nyob rau hauv kev kho mob technology yuav txhim kho nws lub neej zoo. Nws hais rau cov pab neeg nws xav nyob rau hauv kev tshawb fawb thiab kam noj ib feem nyob rau hauv kev txom nyem ntawm tshiab technologies.

Lub Ohio soj ntsuam tau txais lawv txhais tes rau ntawm ib tug neural bypass tsim los ntawm ib tug sib hlub sib txhawb hu ua Battelle thiab muaj Burkhart lub sij hawm muaj lub cog haum. "Qhov ntawd yog lub lab duas lus nug: cas koj xav kom muaj lub hlwb phais los yog ib yam dab tsi uas tej zaum yuav tsis pab tau koj. Muaj ntau ntau yam,"Hais tias Burkhart. "Nws yog yeej ib yam dab tsi kuv yuav tsum tau xav txog rau heev ib cov sij hawm. Tab sis tom qab ib tug lub rooj sib tham nrog tag nrho cov pab neeg thiab txhua leej txhua tus muab kev koom tes, Kuv paub tias kuv yog nyob rau hauv zoo ob txhais tes. "

Nws mus tom ntej thiab cov neeg phais raug ntsuas ib tug me me computer nti rau hauv lub cev muaj zog cortex ntawm nws lub hlwb. No, lub nti khaws hluav taws xob Pib ntsais koj teeb ntawm ib sab ntawm lub cev muaj zog cortex controls tes taw.

Ib tug me me nti nyob rau hauv lub cev muaj zog cortex ntawm lub paj hlwb picks hluav taws xob Pib ntsais koj teeb uas tswj txhais tes zog.
Ib tug qhia tshwj xeeb uas ua lub tes tsho nyob rau forearm tau txais Pib ntsais koj teeb los ntawm ib tug me me nti nyob rau hauv lub cev muaj zog cortex ntawm lub paj hlwb uas enables tes zog. Duab: Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center / Batelle

Lub ib yas ib yas ntawm lub hlwb kev ua si yog noj mus rau hauv ib lub computer thiab hloov dua siab tshiab rau hauv hluav taws xob pulses uas bypass qhov raug mob txha caj qaum thiab txuas mus rau ib tug tes tsho uas Burkhart ris rau nws forearm. Los ntawm muaj, 130 electrodes xa cov pulses los ntawm daim tawv nqaij kom cov nqaij hauv qab, qhov uas lawv tswj lub dab teg thiab txawm cais ntiv tes taw. Cov qauv ntawm cov Pib ntsais koj teeb tuned yuav tsim tau tus taw Burkhart xav tias hais txog kev ua.

Nws muab sij hawm los kawm kom paub siv lub ntaus ntawv. Tshaj 15 lub hlis, Burkhart siv mus txog peb zaug ib lub lim tiam kawm yuav ua li cas tswj tau nws txhais tes taw.

"Chiv peb yuav ua tau ib tug luv luv sib kho thiab kuv xav xav hlwb fatigued thiab sab sab, zoo li kuv twb tau nyob rau hauv ib tug rau los sis xya teev kev kuaj mob. rau 19 xyoo ntawm kuv lub neej kuv coj nws khuv xim: Kuv xav thiab kuv tus ntiv tes txav. Tiam sis muaj ntau thiab ntau xyaum nws los ua yooj yim npaum li. Nws yog tus thib ob xwm. "

"Tus thawj lub sij hawm kuv tsiv kuv txhais tes, Kuv tau hais tias flicker ntawm kev cia siab paub hais tias qhov no yog ib yam dab tsi uas yog ua hauj lwm, Kuv yuav tsum tau siv kuv txhais tes dua. Txoj cai tam sim no, nws tsuas yog nyob rau hauv ib tug soj ntsuam qhov chaw, tab sis muaj txaus cov neeg ua hauj lwm rau nws, thiab txaus mloog, it can be something I can use outside of the hospital, at my home and outside my home, and really improve the quality of my life,"Nws hais.

Burkhart performed the first movements using thoughts alone in 2014, but has since learned more complex actions and more precise control over his hand and fingers. Details of the latest results are published in Xwm.

Special software is able to decode Burkhart’s thoughts and convert them into electrical signals in his hand, bypassing the damaged nerves in his spine

“It was an amazing moment for the team,” said Ali Rezai, a neurosurgeon at Ohio State’s Wexner Medical Center, recalling Burkhart’s first hand movements. But at the time, his control allowed for only basic movements. “A few seconds after the amazement, we said OK, we have much more work to do here.” The team set to work on turning the rough movements into precise, useful actions.

Chad Bouton, who helped create the device, said the study marked the first time a person living with paralysis had regained movement using signals recorded from within the brain. “We think this is an important result as we try and pave the way for other patients in the future, not only those with spinal injuries, but also those that have experienced a stroke, and potentially even traumatic brain injury,"Nws hais.

“We were not sure if this would be possible,” Bouton added. “Not only were we able to find those signals in the brain and decipher them for individual finger movements, but we were able to link those signals to Ian’s muscles and allow that kind of movement to be regained. This is important for daily activities, such as feeding, and having the patient be able to clothe themselves.”

The researchers are now looking at a host of improvements that should make the system more portable and possible to use outside the hospital. Brain signals picked up by the implant could potentially be sent wirelessly to the computer for processing, and onwards to the forearm sleeve to stimulate the muscles. Another improvement could see more electrodes added to the brain chip, so more subtle signals can be detected and passed on to the patient’s muscles.

“Ten years ago we couldn’t do this. Imagine what we can do in another 10,” said Rezai.

Nick Annetta, an electrical engineer on the team, said the team was working to make the system smaller and useful for a broader range of patients. “This could be applied to other motor impairments, not just spinal cord injuries,"Nws hais. “We think this is just the beginning.”

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