Barka da zuwa The Robot-Based ma'aikata

Welcome to The Robot-Based Workforce

Daga waitstaff kula sahabbai da kuma shari'a bincike, a nan gaba na na'ura ma'aikacin da yake a nan. Amma inda ba wanda ya bar mutane


Powered by Guardian.co.ukWannan labarin mai taken “Barka da zuwa robot tushen ma'aikata: za aikinku zama mai sarrafa kansa ma?” aka rubuta ta hanyar Julia Carrie Wong a San Francisco, for The Observer a ranar Asabar 19th Maris 2016 14.24 UTC

"Yana da m sihiri,"Eatsa alkawuran.

A San Francisco na farko cikakken sarrafa kansa restaurant, abinci bayyana a little gilashi cubbies, kawai 90 seconds bayan abokan ciniki oda, kuma ku bãyar kan garun-saka iPads. Yana da wani mutum-kasa da kwarewa - babu waitstaff, babu kashiya, ba wanda zai sa ka domin ba daidai ba, kuma babu wanda ya tip.

Har ila yau yana da wani parlor zamba.

The lokacin kafin gari ya bayyana, da Dubi-ta nuni allon cewa fronts da cubbies ke baki ga 'yan seconds lokacin da ka iya kama gaban hannun wanda Ciyarwar ka.

Eatsa bai samu total aiki. Kamfanin ya yarda da shi ma'aikata a kananan kitchen ma'aikatan, kuma daya ma'aikaci ne ba a gaban Haikalin, amsa tambayoyi game da yadda za a oda da kuma dodging tambayoyi game da abin da ke faruwa a bayan garu na sihiri cubbies. ("Duk abin da ka yi tunanin,"Ya teases.)

Amma gidan cin abinci, wanda ya bude a watan Agusta, kuma ya riga ya kumbura to Los Angeles, yayi wani hango na azumi-gabatowa gaskiya, inda dukan nau'i-nau'i daga ayyuka da cewa su ne sau ɗaya cikin m lardin mutane za a iya cika sauri, mai rahusa, kuma mafi dogara da inji.

A nan gaba ne a nan, kuma ba wanda aiki ne lafiya.

Machines a wurin aiki

"Zan iya ganin taro rashin aikin yi a sararin sama kamar yadda yaro-revolution riƙe,"Ya ce Noel Sharkey, wani farfesa na girmamawa na yaro- kuma wucin gadi m, a Jami'ar Sheffield a Birtaniya. Sharkey kwanan fara Foundation for alhakin Robotics ya taimake mu kauce wa "m al'umma da kuma da'a hadura" daga tartsatsi aikace-aikace na m mutummutumi.

Akwai kome ba musamman sabon game da ƙararrawa Sharkey aka kara. A 2013, Oxford malaman Carl Benedikt Frey kuma Michael A Osborne ya yi gargadin cewa kimanin 47% total US aiki ne a hadarin walwa, a wani bincike cewa ranked 702 aikin da su alama da ake shafe.

Telemarketers, bincike, wasanni alkalan wasa, shari'a sakatarorin, kuma cashiers aka samu ya zama daga cikin mafi kusantar su rasa su jobs, yayin da likitoci, makarantan nasare malamai, lauyoyi, artists, kuma limaman Kirista zauna cikin aminci.

A The Future na fasahohin, da aka buga a 2015, marubuta Richard Susskind da dansa, Daniel Susskind, jãyayya da cewa har ma da wadanda gargajiya fasahohin zai koma baya da kuma a maye gurbinsu da "ƙara m tsarin".

A abokin ciniki yana amfani da wani iPads sanya da kuma biya wa tsari a Eatsa, mai cikakken sarrafa kansa gidan cin abinci a San Francisco.
A abokin ciniki yana amfani da wani iPads sanya da kuma biya wa tsari a Eatsa, mai cikakken sarrafa kansa gidan cin abinci a San Francisco. M: Ramin Talaie ga Observer

The Susskinds bukatar daina amfani da m siga. Last rani a shari'a taimako kayan aiki da ake kira Ross aka kaddamar, wanda yana amfani da IBM ta artificially fasaha super-kwamfuta Watson ya dauki kan aikin shari'a bincike.

Ross Intelligence co-kafa da Shugaba Andrew Arruda bayar da hujjar cewa, kayan aiki, wanda za a iya yi aiki da zarar ya hours a cikin wani al'amari na seconds, ba wata barazana ga jobs tun manyan doka kamfanonin tsaya cajin kudi domin hours ciyar a kan bincike a lokacin Great koma bayan tattalin arziki. Ya kuma ce Ross zai "ƙara samun adalci" by yin lauyoyi more m ga 80% Amirkawa suka ba zai iya iya shi.

Har yanzu, Ross yake yi aikin da mutane da aka taba biya saman dollar yi.

A ranar Talata, da Financial Times ya ruwaito a kan wani bincike da Deloitte wanda gano cewa Birtaniya ya riga ya rasa 31,000 jobs in da shari'a kansu zuwa aiki da kai, kuma kimanta cewa wani 114,000 jobs zai zama na gaba.

Yana da dukan faruwa sosai azumi. A 2013, MIT injiniya farfesa John Leonard shaidawa MIT Technology Review cewa "mutummutumi kawai maye gurbin mutane" zai faru ba a rayuwa. "The Semi-m taxi za su har yanzu suna da direba,"Ya bayar da hujjar. yau, Google ta m motoci yi tafiya fiye da 1m miles a kan jama'a tituna, kuma kai-tuki taksin ze fãce makawa.

Sharkey bukata da cewa sabis masana'antu za a musamman wuya buga. Ya yi kiyasin cewa da 2018 za a yi 35 miliyan sabis mutummutumi "a aikin".

Walwa cubbies a Eatsa, San Francisco.
Walwa cubbies a Eatsa, San Francisco. M: Ramin Talaie ga Observer

A bartending robot mai suna "monsieur"Rigaya a kasuwa. A hardware store a San Jose, California yana da kiri aboki robot mai suna "wuce."The UK salatin bar sarkar komowa bayar da rahoton cewa sanar wannan watan biyu kantuna a London zai yi kai sabis kiosks maimakon cashiers. A ranar Alhamis, Domino ta Australia bayyana a pizza delivery robot a Brisbane.

Wasu kamfanonin ze damu da zargi, dõmin su yi shan tafi mutane jobs.

A ranar Alhamis, Bloomberg bayar da rahoton cewa Google ne sayar Boston kuzarin kawo cikas, da kirkiro frighteningly agile mutummutumi cewa samu a 2013.

"Akwai tashin hankali daga tech latsa, amma muna ma lokacin da na fara ganin wasu mummunan zaren game da shi kasancewa m, shirye su yi mutane 'jobs,"Ya rubuta daya Google ma'aikaci a ciki imel samu ta hanyar Bloomberg.

Mika Green, wanda ya kafa Maidbot, wani kamfanin gina mutummutumi tsaftace hotel dakuna, jaddada cewa, "a wannan mataki" da kamfanin ya kayayyakin ne "an augmentation, ba sauyawa "na housekeepers.

Other ir yi ba ƙasũsuwa game da aiki-maye gurbin nufi.

Kamar 'yan miles daga Eatsa wani San Francisco farawa, lokacinta Machines, An gina mutummutumi da zai iya maye gurbin minions bayan labulen. A 2012, kamfanin fito mai cikakken sarrafa kansa hamburger yin na'ura, da website alfahari da cewa shi ya koma kan zuwa salads, sandwiches, da kuma "wasu Multi-sashi abinci".

"Yã na'urar ba a nufi yin ma'aikata fi dacewa,"Co-kafa Alexandros Vardakostas gaya Xconomy. "Shi ke nufi gaba daya obviate su."

Mabu, da robot aboki

A 2014, Stowe Boyd, a kai bayyana post-futurist, jefar da Gauntlet. "The tsakiya tambaya na 2025 zai zama: Mene ne mutane domin a cikin duniya da ba ya bukatar su aiki, da kuma inda kawai a 'yan tsirarun da ake bukata don shiryar da' bot tushen tattalin arzikin?"Sai ya tambaye a benci Research Center rahoto.

Amsar iya karya a cikin irin ayyukan da suke akai-akai unpaid: care aikin al'ada sanya mata. Computers da mutummutumi iya zama mafi alhẽri daga mutane a manual aiki, paperwork, har ma da dabaru, amma ba su ji, kuma ba za su iya empathize.

A kalla, ba da gaske.

A wani ginshiki ofishin a San Francisco ta Dogpatch unguwa, Dr Cory kidd aka gina robot wanda tafin aiki shi ne ya tilasta da masu shiga m halin canje-canje.

Mabu ne mai tebur fitila-sized robot wanda daukawa mai touchpad ta ciki. Kamar yadda a "sirri kiwon lafiya abokin", ta ne aka yi nufi ga marasa lafiya manajan kullum cututtuka. Tare da fadi da kore idanu da kuma kodadde rawaya fata, ta iya zama daya daga cikin yake a ji a cikin Pixar movie tu Out. Kuma ji ne abin da ta ne duk game da.

Ga wani robot, Mabu ba ya yi ba wani abu musamman m. Ta kawai zaune a kan bedside tebur, falke up sau daya ko sau biyu a rana ya rike wani zance da ita owner.

Cory kidd, Shugaba da kuma kafa Catalia Health, hoton da Mabu.
Cory kidd, Shugaba da kuma kafa Catalia Health, hoton da Mabu. M: Ramin Talaie ga Observer

wadanda tattaunawa, tsara tare da labari daga halin Psychologists kuma tsohon Hollywood screenwriter da ta samu ta wucin gadi m cewa taimaka Mabu daidaita da wani mutum hali da kuma bukatun, suna nufin "] aukaka haƙuri da kansa dalili" to bi magani da tsare-tsaren.

 

Mabu ne mugun wayo mace a murya da kuma a cikin bayyanar, a zabi kidd ce dogara ne a kan bincike cewa, stereotypically, "Mata da ake gani a matsayin mafi m, da kula".

Shin Mabu kula da mu? Ita filastik, amma a lokacin da kidd gaya mata cewa ba ya jin cewa babban, ta amsa, "Kana ɗauke da yawa a kan kafadu,"Kuma dips ta kai a wani karimcin da kamannuna kamar empathy.

Kada mu kula Mabu? Kidd ce cewa a lokacin da ya tattara ta daga marasa lafiya bayan gwaji, mutane da yawa sun a'a. "Suka ce, 'Ta yi kamar wani memba na iyali.' "

Ta iya samar da wani irin tunanin da kuma m goyon bayan cewa mutane ba su iya yi yadda ya kamata. Ka yi tunanin abokin tarayya tambayar ku kowace rana, shin, kun riƙi your kwaya, sa'an nan kuma tunanin abin da suka zai kasance abokin tarayya. (Wannan shi ne dalilin da ya sa kidd ce, "Muna ba ya maye gurbin wani mutum. Ba zan iya tunanin mutum wanda zai zama lafiya abokin. ")

Amma idan Mabu iya zama mafi alhẽri a adam fiye da mutane iya, abin da aka bar mana?

Zai yiwu kawai hali da kuma rearing sababbin mutane. Wannan shi ne inda Noel Sharkey fa, tã da line. A 2008, Sharkey buga The da'a Frontiers na Robotics a mujallar Kimiyya, wata takarda a cikin abin da ya yi gargaɗi kan ci gaban da "yaro-minding mutummutumi" riga faruwa a Japan da Koriya ta Kudu.

Sharkey ya ci gaba da karatu aukuwa a fagen reno mutummutumi, ciki har da wasu da suke riga available, kamar "Childcare Robot takarda"Daga Japan ta Nippon Electric Company (NEC).

"Mun riga mun ga overuse na mutummutumi a neman bayan yara,"Sharkey ce. "Daga mu cikakken bincike na yiwuwar dogon lokaci kula da yara da mutummutumi, za mu iya sa ran a yawan tsanani da aka makala cuta da zai iya girbe halaka a cikin al'umma. "

Yana da dukan mu aiki su hana cewa.

guardian.co.uk © Guardian News & Kafofin watsa labaru Limited 2010

Shafi Articles