Saman hudu zamani kisan a yamma

The top four modern killers in the west

 

Powered by Guardian.co.ukWannan labarin mai taken “Saman hudu zamani kisan a yamma” aka rubuta ta hanyar Robin McKie, for The Observer a ranar Asabar 6th Yuni 2015 23.05 UTC

ciwon daji

Ina muke
The yaki da ciwon daji ta tabbatar da zama daya daga cikin mafi girma da ilimi da kuma m kalubalen zamani. A shekara ɗari da suka wuce, m shisshigi goyon baya daga farkon siffofin radiation far su ne kawai makamai a zubar da likitoci. tun daga nan, da dama key juyin sun canja abin da.

Na farko shi ne gabatarwar jiyyar cutar sankara, a cikin nau'i na kwayoyi da aka samu, Abin mamaki, daga mustard gas da aka yi amfani a matsayin makami a lokacin yakin duniya na farko. Doctors wanda za'ayi autopsies a gas wadanda ya lura da cewa shi hana cell division, da kuma ci gaba da cewa versions taimaka wajen dakatar da ƙari Kwayoyin daga proliferating. Wadannan zama na yau da kullum jiyya a 1950s.

Abin da a yanzu?
Kamar yadda ilimin kwayoyin hali bincike cigaban a karni na 20th, masana kimiyya sun yi amfani da ilmi da bunkasa sabon jiyya. Recent ci gaba sun hada da niyya hanyoyin kwantar da hankali. Waɗannan su ne mafi takamaiman a cikin mataki da ciwace-ciwacen daji domin su yi aiki a kan kwayoyin hari hade da musamman ciwon daji Kwayoyin, alhãli kuwa mafi misali chemotherapies aiki a kan dukkan hanzari rarraba Kwayoyin, zama su al'ada ko cancerous.

Misali, a game da daya daga cikin biyar nono marasa lafiya, ƙari Kwayoyin da kuma da yawa daga mai girma-inganta gina jiki da aka sani da HER2 kan surface. Dairy cancers da yawa na wannan gina jiki ne musamman m, masana kimiyya samu. A yawan kwayoyi, kamar Herceptin, An ɓullo da Target wannan da furotin da kuma toshe yaduwar ciwon daji Kwayoyin. Wadannan niyya hanyoyin kwantar da hankali ne a yanzu a mainstay a yaƙi da ciwon daji.

Mene ne manyan matsalolin?
Great ci gaba da ake yi, amma kunno matsalar iya zama kudi maimakon fasaha. The sabon ƙarni na kwayoyi da ake ci gaba ne tsada sosai, kiwon tambayoyi na affordability.

A kai da fledgling fasaha na immunotherapy. Cancer Kwayoyin mallaka wani irin asiri musafiha cewa lallashi T-Kwayoyin, a key na jiki ta anti-cuta defenses, ba su kai farmaki da su. A cikin shekarun 1990s, masana kimiyya ya gano wani kwayoyin a kan T-Kwayoyin cewa shi ne wani ɓangare na wannan musafiha. An sani a matsayin kaddara mutuwa 1 (PD1) da kuma, tun da samu, masu bincike da aka ƙoƙarin rushe da aiki.

The sabon kwayoyi bayyana a Chicago makon da ya gabata ne sakamakon wannan aikin. Gwaji a kan marasa lafiya da ci-gaba melanoma, wanda yana da high mutuwa kudi, riga samar karfafa sakamakon, amma masana kimiyya yi gargaɗi da cewa akwai zai iya zama m gefe-effects a wasu marasa lafiya.

kwakwalwa slide
M: Alamy

gigin-tsufa

Ina muke?
Gigin-tsufa ba a zahiri wata cuta. Yana da sakamako da yawa daban-daban yanayi. Alzheimer ta cuta ne ya fi na kowa daga cikin wadannan, amma wasu sun hada da jijiyoyin bugun gini gigin-tsufa da kuma frontotemporal gigin-tsufa. Dukan waɗannan siffofin raba kowa bayyanar cututtuka, duk da haka. Wadannan sun hada da memory asarar, rikice kuma mutuntakarsa canji.

Duk da yake gigin-tsufa ne haƙĩƙa, ba makawa sakamako na samun haihuwa, da alama na bunkasa yanayin Lalle qara da shekaru. Kamar wancan, kamar yadda cututtuka aka rinjãye a Birtaniya, da mace-mace rates for ciwon daji da kuma zuciya yanayi ya tilasta saukar, more kuma mafi mutane sun iya zama ga tsũfa. (Life expectancy a Birtaniya ne a yanzu 79 ga maza da 83 ga mata.)

yau, an lasafta cewa akwai a yanzu fiye da 850,000 mutane da gigin-tsufa a Birtaniya.

Abin da a yanzu?
By 2025, yawan lokuta na gigin-tsufa a Birtaniya ana sa ran tashi zuwa fiye da 1 da miliyan. By 2050, an kimanta to fi 2 da miliyan. Bugu da kari, da yanayin da aka samu ya zama musamman na kowa a cikin mata. Na 850,000 gigin-tsufa marasa lafiya a Birtaniya, 500,000 ne mace. Saboda, mata a kan 60 yanzu sau biyu a matsayin wata ila don samun gigin-tsufa kamar nono.

Masana kimiyya suna yanzu aiki a kan hanyoyin da za a yi amfani da kwayoyin da kuma kara-cell kimiyoyi don gane da cikakken Sanadin daban-daban siffofin gigin-tsufa da kuma, a cikin dogon gudu, wajen samar da magungunan da zai iya rage gudu asarar ikon tunani a cikin wadanda abin ya shafa da yanayin.

Masana kimiyya hankalin cewa wannan tsammãni zauna dogon lokaci burin kuma ka yi gargaɗi akwai da yawa aikin da har yanzu yana bukatar a yi.

Mene ne matsaloli?
A key matsala ga waɗanda kokarin magance gigin-tsufa ne rashin albarkatun. A nan an manyan zuba jari a cututtukan zuciya da kuma ciwon daji bincike a cikin 'yan shekarun nan, kuma wadannan sun taimaka saukar mutuwa rates.

Amma abin da ya faru ba tare da gigin-tsufa, ya ce Matiyu Norton, shugaban siyasa domin Alzheimer ta Research UK. "Kamar dubi Figures,"Inji shi.

"Total ciyar a Birtaniya – daga sadakõkinsu, kuma gwamnati – a kan gigin-tsufa a 2013 ya £ 73.8m. Da bambanci, domin ciwon daji, cewa adadi shi ne £ 503m. "Wannan yana nufin underfunding rage manpower, ce fafutuka. Akwai wasu 3,600 gigin-tsufa bincike aiki a Birtaniya -about 19,000 m fiye da wadanda aiki a kan cutar daji, ko da yake gigin-tsufa koda halin kaka Birtaniya tattalin arzikin more. Don haka, al'amurra na gano jiyya rage ko dakatar da asarar ikon tunani hade da gigin-tsufa za a iyakance, masu bincike sun ce.

Ciwon zuciya, na ra'ayi kwamfuta artwork
M: PASIEKA / SPL / Getty Images / Brand X

cututtukan zuciya da

Ina muke?
A cikin shekaru 50 shekaru, An yi wani m kyautata a mace-mace rates daga zuciya da jijiyoyin jini cuta a Birtaniya. Wannan batu da aka daidai summed up da Peter Weissberg, likita darektan British Heart Foundation. "The tushe da aka kafa a 1961, a lõkacin da cututtukan zuciya da aka sassa daban-daban na kasar. Yana sa kusan rabin dukan mutuwar a Birtaniya a cikin wannan shekara. "

tare da ƙarshe, shi ne, ba wuya a ga dalilin da ya sa. Shan taba matakan kasance sau hudu mafi girma fiye da a yau, yayin da cin abinci high a daskararre – dukan madara, man shanu da kuma ja nama – shi ne kullum.

yau, wadanda abinci da aka maye gurbinsu da ƙananan-mai zažužžukan, kayan lambu mai, skimmed madara da kuma wuraren kiwon kaji. Muna da magunguna don rage jini da kuma cholesterol matakan, kuma shi ne mai yiwuwa a bude katange ko quntata arteries ba tare da manyan tiyata.

Abin da a yanzu?
Dabara, kwayoyi da su bi lalace zukãtansu shan wahala daga key matsala: su ne da wuya a jarraba. "Ba za mu iya ci gaba da yankan marasa lafiya bude cire zuciya-nama samfurori. Wannan shi ne kawai ba m ko da'a,"Ya ce Chris Denning na Nottingham University.

A bayani na masana kimiyya a 'yan shekarun nan ya juya ga yin amfani da kara Kwayoyin. A Nottingham Jami'ar bincike sun riƙi Kwayoyin daga marasa lafiya 'fata da kuma wanka da su a gina jiki domin ya canza su a kara Kwayoyin, wani irin cell da za a iya juya a cikin wani nama. Wadannan Kwayoyin suna sa'an nan ci gaba a cikin zuciya Kwayoyin, wanda aka sa a Petri yi jita-jita ga gwaji dalilai.

"Wannan yana nufin su ne manufa domin kokarin sabon kwayoyi a kan. Yana da wani wuce yarda da muhimmanci ci gaba,"Kara Denning.

Sauran masana kimiyya yi imani da cewa shi yana iya zama zai yiwu a yi amfani da kara Kwayoyin to kai tsaye gyara, lalace zukãtansu a nan gaba.

Mene ne matsaloli?
Ko da yake likita hanyoyin ci gaba da inganta yiwuwa ga ceton rayukan wadanda suka sha wahala daga zuciya da jijiyoyin jini cuta, akwai rundunar ANNOBA al'amurran da suka shafi cewa barazanar biya diyya wadannan amfanin.

Misali, cikin kudi na shan taba ki sharply tsakanin 1972 da kuma 1994 amma fall-kashe ya tun ragae down. Kuma ruwan dare nauyi sha bai canza ba sosai tun 1970s. M, yara kiba da aka kara a duka maza da mata tun tsakiyar shekarun 1980s, yayin adult kiba rates ma ci gaba da tashi - kamar yadda shi ne abin da ya faru na ciwon sukari a Birtaniya. Duk wadannan abubuwan ƙara hadarin da cututtukan zuciya da mace-mace rates zai iya tashi a sake a nan gaba.

Weissberg ya yi gargadin cewa wadannan dalilai "barazana ga derail da ragewa trends a cututtukan zuciya da kuma mutuwa rates cewa muna yanzu fuskantar".

Antibodies kai hare hare mura cutar, artwork
M: SCIEPRO / Getty Images / Brand X

cutar

Ina muke?
Fatattakar 'bũlãlar cutar a yammacin duniya da aka kullum dangana ga cigaban maganin shirye-shirye da kuma maganin rigakafi, ko da yake inganta muhalli da kuma kiwon lafiya da ilimi sun kasance key dalilai.

"A gaskiya, mutuwa rates daga tarin fuka, a pernicious kisa, ya fara sauke zuwa tsakiyar karni na 19th,"Ya ce Carsten Timmermann na Manchester University. "A 1838, akwai a kusa da 4,000 mutuwar da miliyan a sakamakon tarin fuka, amma wannan ya ragu zuwa kusa da 1,000 by 1900. Alurar kuma maganin rigakafi da kõme ba yi da cewa. Lalle ne, haƙĩƙa, shi ne, ba bayyana dalilin da ya sa ƙi faru a dukan. Amma shi ne kuma bayyana a fili cewa shirye-shirye kamar BCG maganin shiri ya gaske tsaya tarin fuka kasancewa mai tsanani kisa da tsakiyar karni na 20th. "

Abin da a yanzu?
A yamma, mafi cututtuka yanzu sa a bay. Duk da haka, sikẽli sigar m daya. "A cikin shekara1960s, a US likita-general aka yi zargin sun yi da'awar cewa cututtuka da aka gaba daya ci,"Ya ce Jeremy Farrar, wanda shi ne shugaban Birtaniya Wellcome Trust.

"Labarin iya zama Afokirifa amma lalle kudade sama halaye a lokacin. Sa'an nan, kamar wata shekarun da suka gabata baya, muna da zuwa na HIV a yamma, kuma a fili darasi game da taba-ba hatsarin cututtuka, wanda iya yada da sauri sosai daga wasu sassa na duniya. "

Bugu da kari, Yunƙurin na juriyar – a sakamakon, a sashi, na overuse – ya haddasa girma tsoro cewa daya daga yamma ta key defenses da cutar za a iya rasa a nan gaba, har pharmaceutical kamfanonin bugun sama da cin gaban sabuwar versions.

Mene ne matsaloli?
A wata ƙara alaka duniya, yana da mafi kuma mafi wuya ga dauke da cututtuka. Canje-canje a cikin yanayi da ya karu na hijira daga yankunan da abin zai faru da tashin teku matakan ko yada hamadar kuma za ta ƙara hadarin sabon cututtuka ko sabuwar damuwa data kasance yanayi isa a yamma.

"A tasowa, mun maye gurbin da matsalolin cutar da suka shafi kiwon lafiyar, kamar ciwon sukari da kuma kiba,"Ya ce Farrar. "Amma a tasowa, har yanzu suna da manyan matsaloli da cututtuka – zazzabin cizon sauro, Tarin fuka da HIV, misali – amma kuma ana shafi kiba da ciwon sukari. Kasashen kamar wadannan – Vietnam ne mai kyau misali – bukatar babba taimako daga duniya hukumomin kamar World Health Organisation. Duk da haka, wadannan hukumomin ba su samun goyon bayan da suke bukata daga wajen yamma, wani more. "

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