Ta yaya mutane za cinye Mars kuma bayan

How humans will conquer Mars and beyond

 

Powered by Guardian.co.ukWannan labarin mai taken “Ta yaya mutane za cinye Mars kuma bayan” aka rubuta ta hanyar Kevin Fong, don The tsaro a ranar Lahadi 13th Disamba 2015 08.30 UTC

A wannan shekara da Royal jamiyyar ta Kirsimeti Lectures dubi kalubale na mutum sarari gudu da abin da yana daukan su jĩfa mutane a cikin karshe Frontier a Voyages da bincike.

Kamar yadda likita na ciyar fiye da shekaru goma da tafiya da baya da kuma fitar tsakanin Birtaniya da kuma Nasa ta Johnson Space Center a Houston, aiki a matsayin ziyartar bincike kan ayyukan jere daga nazarin sakamakon da sarari yanayi a kan tsufa Physiology to wucin gadi nauyi tsarin. A daidai wannan lokaci da nake kammala ta junior likita horo a maganin sa barci da kuma m care. Shi ne m kokarin splice wadanda biyu rayuka tare. Aiki a kan wani m kula naúrar dare, je zuwa filin jirgin sama a karshen motsi, grabbing wasu barci a kan jirgin, sa'an nan kuma isa gobe, a wata ganawa dakin a Houston, inda mutane suna zaune a kusa da magana game da yadda za a aika da mutane zuwa ga tudun Mars.

Amma abu da nasaba da biyu kuwa shi ne kalubale na rayuwa a matuƙa. A cikin asibiti na neman a matuƙa na rai idan kalubalanci by cuta da rauni. A Nasa nake kallon barazanar to mutum Physiology da tsakaitãwa daga cikin jiki duniya da sararin samaniya.

Idan muka magana game da matsananci halin wurare za mu iya samun wani m ra'ayin su austerity da kuna hukunta yaushe za su goyi bayan rayuwar mutum unprotected da hoto mai motsi. By cewa gwargwado sarari shi ne na ƙarshe matsananci: uniquely maƙiya a mutum Physiology, shi na samar da wani goyon baya ga rayuwar dan Adam abin. The unprotected sarari matafiyi zai tsira a cikin wannan yanayi kawai ga 'yan seconds.

Za ka iya tunanin cewa akwai zai zama yalwa ga wani likita ya yi - wanda a lokacin da ta je mutum sarari bincike, mutãne waɗanda suke fahimta da za a iya yi amfani da mutum Physiology zai zama a kan gaba wajen wannan} o} arin. Amma likitoci taka matalauta na biyu irin goge abin da yake overwhelmingly al'adun injiniya - kuma da dalili mai kyau.

Space gudu ne a jiki manufa disarmingly sauki. Sai sauki a gaskiyar cewa Newton ya fara fahimtar muhimmancin cewa underpin shi kusan 400 da suka wuce. Don barin Duniya da kuma shigar da wani sarari suKe a kusa da shi, ka farko da bukatar jefa wani abu a fadin duniya don haka da wuya cewa da yanayin kara hayin Duniya ta sãsanni - don haka da wuya cewa shi za a iya sanya su fada cikin irin wannan hanyar da shi bai taba sake sami ƙasa.

Kuma haka ya sa wani abu a cikin sarari suKe kusa da Duniya dole ka samar da shi tare da wani babban adadin kuzari. A m sharuddan da sauri ka je da fadi da radius daga cikin kewayewa ka kai; don samun abin hawa don cimma wani sarari suKe m isa ya sa shi miss biyu da Duniya da kuma na sama yadudduka da yanayi, sanya ku a wannan tsawo a matsayin International Space Station wasu 250 miles akannmu, kana bukatar ka yi tafiya a kusa da 17,500mph.

Wannan na bukatar wani abin hawa propelled by injuna da kuma man fetur tankuna da m damar karamin makamin nukiliya. wannan tafiya, daga surface na Duniya a low Duniya kewayewa - a kan da Soyuz kumbon sama jannati - daukan kadan bisa takwas da minti. Kuma don haka dalilin cewa al'adun a Nasa, da kuma sarari hukumomin fadin duniya, ne don haka matabbata a cikin bukatar aikin injiniya wajen fiye da wadanda na mutum ilmin halitta ne domin a cikin wancan taƙaitaccen amma m zamani akwai kusan kome zamani magani iya bayar a cikin hanyar kariya. A lokacin jefa, ko dai da aikin injiniya aiki da kuma kowa da kowa na zaune, ko shi ya aikata ba, kuma kowa ya gangara.

The adana rayuwar mutum a ko'ina jefa dogara ba bisa likita hanyoyin amma a concentric yadudduka na wucin gadi kariya cewa injiniyoyi zane da kuma gina da swaddle, xan sama jannatin crews a.

Rokan injuna dole wuta daidai, haihuwa kawai da hakkin dirka a lokacin da ya dace, directed a daidai hanyar da ta dace. The gagarumin karfi na cewa propulsion dole ba za a yarda ya girgiza da abin hawa, da tsarin ko da m kaya na fasinjoji baya. Yana da aiki na aikin injiniya teams don tabbatar da cewa shirin mai gabatarwa da kuma abin hawa an tsara su don yi a fuskar tsaro da aka ƙoƙarin hallaka su.

Kuma perched atop cewa hasumiyar kerosene da oxygen ne wani kankanin kwantena, da girma daga dintsi na tarho kwalaye, kuma kamar wata ton na kayayyaki da uku fasinjoji crammed a cikinsu. Wannan kwantena ne wani kankanin kumfa rayuwa goyon bayan, pinched kashe daga duniya da kuma kiyaye artificially. Ciki, har yanzu more inji samar da wani yanayi breathable da isa matsa lamba da kuma zafi, don tallafa wa rayuwa a cikin wõfintattu sarari. Idan ka tsira da ƙaddamar, matsaloli suna da gaske kawai kawai farko.

Chris hadfield a iss
high tebur: Chris Hadfield cin a sifili nauyi a kan kasa da kasa Space Station. M: a kan

International Space Station

Yana da riya tunani na kasa da kasa Space Station matsayin hi-tech Big Brother gidan, iyo high sama da Duniya. A wasu hankula cewa gaskiya ne: rai yanayi ne matsananci da wani al'ada misali. Akwai 'yan halitta ta'aziya da kuma m kadan sirri. Yana da wani rai tsari bristling da yiwuwar babbar zamantakewa rikici. Amma remarkably da aka fi mayar kauce masa da 15 shekaru aiki a can ya kasance ba evictions.

Amma ISS da yawa fiye da wani masauki block. A lokacin da crews tafi ya zauna a can suna shan up zama cikin wata na'ura a kan abin da rãyukansu dogara kowane biyu na yini. Suka electrolyse ruwa don samar da oxygen, amfani da kwayoyin sieves to goge sharar gida gases daga iska da suke numfashi, gudu tsarin dumama daga sararin hasken rana iri-iri da za a iya tsotso daga 80kW iko. Wannan hasken rana kuma koran hudu babbar gyroscopes, wanda kwari da bi da tashar, hana shi daga tumbling daga iko.

The International Space Station ne da nisa daga tranquil: shi hums da whines abada; fans gudu a duk tsawon lokacin. Ba tare da nauyi zafi iska ba tashi da sanyi iska ba nutse. Akwai, a matsayin sakamako, babu convection kuma ba tare da cewa yana da wuya a samu iska don matsar da ko Mix. Wannan bi da bi sa matsaloli, barin 'yan saman jannati yiwuwa ga ciwon kai a cikin talauci ventilated yankunan, inda exhaled carbon dioxide iya gina up. Saboda haka da akai drum na Motors churning iska. The zayyana a kan ISS, kamar kusan kome da kome kuma cewa crews dogara a kan for lafiya rai, ne wucin gadi. Dukan wannan} o} arin kawai don kula da kumfa na rayuwa goyon baya a wani outpost kawai 250 miles bisa kawunansu. The kalubale da hannu ne legion kuma ba mu ma fara magana game da barin low Duniya kewayewa yet.

Back to watã

Akwai wanda ba a kare aiki a kan wata. Yana da kusan rabin karni, tun lokacin da Apollo shirin sauka a dozin mutane a kan ta surface. Kuma yayin da shi wakiltar wata taska trove kimiyya samu, babu wanda ya kasance baya tun. Low Duniya kewayewa ne 250 miles bãya, kuma za a iya kai a cikin minti. The moon ne game da 250,000 mil, daukan kwanaki don samun da, Baya ga kadaici da kara wuya daga cikin roka kimiyya da ake bukata, bar crews musamman m zuwa radiation. A Duniya muna kariya daga wasu iri radiation da m bargo na yanayi sama, wanda garwaya gamma haskoki, x-haskoki da ultraviolet radiation wanda zai zama cutarwa in ba haka ba. Amma akwai wani Layer na kariya da kuma rike mu lafiya: Duniya ta Magnetic filin.

The magnetosphere tace fitar da wani musamman cutarwa jinsunan radiation, abin da ya zo a cikin nau'i na caje, high-makamashi barbashi - atomic nuclei spat fitar a matsayin mai da-samfur na thermonuclear halayen a taurari ciki har da namu. Wannan irin radiation ne musamman cutarwa da kuma, a lokacin da hasken rana flares, iya ƙara a tsanani da yawa sau dubbai. A halin yanzu muna da kadan a cikin hanyar m kariya daga radiation wanda ya zo tare da m hasken rana flares.

Mars kuma bayan

A cikin 'yan shekaru da ra'ayin sa mutum crews a farfajiya na wani abu wanin moon ko Mars ya samo tafarkinsa a cikin dabarun takardun na kasa da kasa sarari hukumomin. Wannan manufa ne kasa almarar kimiyya daga gare ku zai yi tunanin. The Turai Space Agenecy ta Rosetta manufa, wanda haka spectacularly sauka da Philae lander a farfajiya na wani tauraro mai wutsiya a bara, nuna mana cewa za mu iya samu da kuma sakonnin wani kankanin manufa hurtling ta sarari daruruwan biliyoyin mil. Wannan ya ba hukumomin amincewa da cewa su ra'ayin saukowa mutum ƙungiya a kan asteroid zai yi realizable.

Amma a yanzu an Mars cewa ya ta'allaka ne a gefen yiwuwar, kuma tsira da tafiya buga wani kalubale a kan wani daban-daban sikelin. Da Mars, matsalar shi ne nesa da kuma lokacin. Don samun da ja duniya dole ka kẽta daruruwan miliyoyin interplanetary miles; fiye da 1,000 sau da nisa Apollo crews tattaki zuwa wata. Tare da data kasance fasaha zai kai tsakanin shida da watanni tara zuwa tafiya daga qasa Mars kuma wannan kuma a kan samu kafa.

Shi ke mai yawa lokaci ciyar ba tare da wani gravitational load a jikinka. Weightlessness iya kama fun, amma kamar komai, kuma da yawa daga shi zai iya zama wani mugun abu. A lokacin da physiologists farko gani, abin da sakamako sarari yanayi zai yi a kan jikin mutum, da wani ya ma kasance a cikin sararin samaniya, su daidai annabta cewa tsoka da kashi zai vata. Wadanda tsarin da ake sculpted da nauyi da kuma yadda duk wanda ya taba sosai kamar yadda ya dube a dakin motsa jiki san, idan ba ka amfani da shi ka rasa shi. Saboda wannan, crews a kan kasa da kasa Space Station dole ƙarƙashin kansu zuwa kullum shirin na resistive aikin gwada da kuma hana wasu daga cewa kashi da tsoka asarar.

farfajiya na mars
Was akwai rai a duniyar Mars? Dark streaks a duniya ta surface wanda ze nuna gaban gudãna ruwa. M: Nasa / Reuters

Weightlessness wreaks halaka tare da sauran tsarin. Yana kofi your hankula na balance kuma co-keɓewa,, sa shi mafi wuya ga ma'aikatan jirgin zuwa waƙa motsi hari, samar da komai bane illa kawayeniya na motsi da, na farko da 'yan kwanaki na gudu, kullum samar da su su ji m queasy. Da ban da tashin zuciya, duk wadannan matsaloli ayan samun muni da ya fi tsayi kuka ciyar weightless.

more kwanan nan, sabon - kuma yiwuwar more damuwa - matsaloli sun cropped up. Saboda wasu dalilai da ba yet gaba ɗaya share matsa lamba a wasu 'yan saman jannati' tarar da kwakwalwarmu bayyana tashi saboda abin da sarari gudu, kuma wannan da aka nasaba da gyare-gyare a ganinsu cewa, wani lokacin dage domin bayan shekaru da dama da suka koma Duniya. Wannan sabon abu ya sani kawai, an lura bayan dogon duration manufa, wanda Highlights saƙon: jawabin da yawa lokaci a sarari ne ba mai girma a gare ka kiwon lafiya.

Amma lokacin da kuma Halicci matsaloli rai goyon bayan tsarin. Idan ka kwatanta da adadin abinci, ruwa, oxygen da iko rai guda zai cinye a cikin wani manufa sa zuwa na ƙarshe har zuwa shekaru uku (idan ka hada da surface tsaya), wanda ya bukaci quite a sizable larder. Yanzu ninka cewa da wani ƙungiya hudu ko shida da shi ya dubi kamar kana bukatar wani impossibly babbar kumbon sama jannati kawai don ci gaba da ku ciyar da shayar.

Kuma wanda bai zama ba zai yiwu ba, sai dai idan har za ka iya maimaita kuma sake amfani duk abin da ka iya. Tuni a kan da tashar sararin samaniya 'yan saman jannati maimaita mafi m sharar gida da ruwa, ciki har da fitsari. Suka goge carbon dioxide daga m exhaled iska da kuma rebreathe sauran oxygen. Za ka iya iya tafi kara har yanzu, da girma amfanin gona hydroponically, a matsayin tushen abinci da inji na cire carbon dioxide da kuma sabuntawar da oxygen wadata. Idan ka za i da hakkin shuke-shuke da ka iya har maimaita da nitrogen a mutum m sharar gida. Wanne mana ne mai kimiyya hanyar cewa watakila za ka iya amfani da your own poo takin rayuwarka-tallafa amfanin gona.

A tsarin da nagartaccen a matsayin cewa shi ne musamman wuya a tara, sarrafa da kuma kula da, kuma yana da wata ila ya zama wani lokaci da muke gani greenhouses yawo ta mai zurfi sarari. Domin a yanzu rayuwa goyon bayan injiniyoyi zai abun da kansu tare da gano hanyoyin da za a maimaita ƙara daga cikin albarkatun da za su iya, da kuma a yin haka rage yawan dangi wanda crews dole ajiye saboda abubuwan da kiyaye su da rai.

Akwai darasi mai sauki daga duk wannan: sarari ne m. All Frontier fitattu ne. Amma akwai yalwa bikin nan. Tun daga farkon karni na 21 akwai kasancewar ɗan adam a duniyance. Abin da ya fara a matsayin filin yaƙi na kare-dangi na yaƙin nukiliya ya zama wani shiri na kimiyya daban-daban, bincike da hadin gwiwa. Wannan ba wurin da zamu shiga tattaunawa bane me yasa zamu bincika sararin samaniya kwata-kwata. Akwai fa'idodi da yawa waɗanda suka samo asali daga binciken sararin samaniya na mutum amma ɗayan sun fi mahimmanci fiye da sauran. Binciken sararin samaniya na ɗan adam yana ƙarfafa yara suyi karatu da kuma bin lamuran kimiyya, fasaha da injiniya. Yana yin hakan ta hanyar nuna musu cewa a cikin iyakokin tunanin mutum wani abu mai yiwuwa ne. Na san wannan saboda ya sa mini wahayi kuma a duk tsawon rayuwata na ci gaba da riƙe burina.

Babban girmamawa ne a bayar da Karatun Karatun Kirsimeti na Royal. Kuma a, saƙon kai-gida shine cewa sarari yana da wuya. Amma ainihin darasi na masu sauraro na wannan shekara shine cewa wannan ya kasance kasada na kuma yana iya kasancewa naku.

Yadda ake Ceto a sarari za a nuna a BBC4 a sassa uku a 28, 29 da kuma 30 Disamba da karfe 8 na yamma. Nemi karin bayani akan Gidan yanar gizon Royal kuma shiga cikin tattaunawar akan Twitter da Instagram ta bin @ri_science ko neman #xmaslectures

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