Biyar Mars binciken da canza kama mu fahimtar da ja duniyar tamu

Five Mars discoveries that transformed our understanding of the red planet

 

Powered by Guardian.co.ukWannan labarin mai taken “Biyar Mars binciken da canza kama mu fahimtar da ja duniyar tamu” ya rubuta Alan Yuhas a birnin New York, don theguardian.com a ranar Alhamis 5th Nuwamba 2015 21.15 UTC

Tare da Rover trundling kan ja ƙasa, wani kumbon sama jannati ruwa ta cikin yanayi da teams a wurin aiki kewaye da duniya, Mars ya ba har wani layi na asirin zuwa Nasa a bara. Ga wasu daga cikin manyan binciken na 2015.

Ruwa da ruwa a duniyar Mars

Nẽmi bayan shekaru da dama, shaidar ruwa ruwa a duniyar Mars zahiri fito daga duniya a watan Yuli, yanã gudãna saukar canyons da bakin dutse ganuwar a kan rani kakar. A Nasa tawagar samu hydrated salts, mai shan taba bindiga ga ruwa ruwa, a shafukan hudu inda duhu stains trickled saukar da Martian ƙasa.

Nasa ba tukuna san tushen da briny downhill kwarara, wanda zai tashi daga karkashin kasa kankara ko aquifers, ko sandare daga cikin yanayi. Da manufa sami alamu na ruwa, ciki har da siffofin abin da ya bayyana gare zama kananan kõguna har ma ruwa mai zuba saukar gullies, amma bazara samu ya yaba matsayin farko ya tabbatar da shaida na ruwa mafi dangantaka da rai.

Masu bincike sun dade da aka gudanar da ruwa ruwa ne mai firamare sashi rai - Nasa ta Mantra a nema shi ne "bi ruwa" - amma masana kimiyya a yanzu fuskantar wani jin kwanda a kan yadda za a gudanar da bincike da kõguna. Da son sani Rover abin da ya bincika Mars shekara uku ba bakararre, da kuma zai iya sama da rigar yankunan tare da terrestrial kwari cewa nẽmi dawwama uwa da kumbon sama jannati a cikin halittu. A Rover zai iya gudanar da bincike daga nesa, tare da Laser da zai auna streaks, ko tana iya hadarin gabatowa zuwa diba har wasu laka.

An yanayi kwace daga iska daga rana

A ranar Alhamis, Nasa sanar jerin binciken game Mars 'yanayi da zai iya taimakawa wajen warware asirin abin da ya faru da Mars, abin da biliyoyin shekaru da suka wuce wani rigar, dumi duniya da wani yanayi 100 sau thicker. A yau duniyar Mars ne bushe, frigid da bombarded da radiation - a duniya ba tare da ƙarfi Magnetic filin da na kewaye da duniya da kuma kare shi daga fashe a rana.

Binciken daga Nasa ta Maven kumbon sama jannati, wanda ya kai Mars karshe fall gudanar da bincike da bakin ciki yanayi, Ana taimaka warware cewa asiri. Ofishin Jakadancin masana kimiyya ya gano cewa hasken rana hadari, wanda tsãwa makamashi da kuma magnetism m, tsiri tafi da barbashi daga yanayi na duniyar Mars a wani m kudi.

"Kamar sata da 'yan tsabar kudi daga wani tsabar kudi rajista a kowace rana, asarar ya zama gagarumin kan lokaci,"Ya ce Bruce Jakosky, Maven ta babba binciken. Hasken rana hadari kasance mafi na kowa da zafin baya a cikin hasken rana tsarin tarihin, ma'ana cewa abubuwan da suka faru a rana ta iya yi manyan komabaya ga ruwa da kuma yanayi na duniyar Mars.

Da manufa kuma auna abun da ke ciki na Mars 'yanayi a karon farko tun lokacin da Viking manufa 40 da suka wuce, suka sami wani m yawan ƙura kyawu sama da duniya. Da masu bincike shawara ta zai iya zama interplanetary kura - da cosmic hatsi bari a baya ta comets da asteroids traversing da hasken rana da tsarin.

Ancient tabkuna

A watan Oktoba, Nasa masana kimiyya samu shaidar tabkuna da zai iya yi dade har zuwa 10,000 shekaru - yiwu dogon isa ga rayuwar wajen samar da a cikin wani wuri mai faɗi marshy na m kõguna da deltas. Bincike na laka ya nuna cewa masana kimiyya ruwa flowed, dauke da tsakuwa da yashi sauka a cikin gigantic guguwa bakin dutse. A cikin tsakiyar bakin dutse tsaye a falalen dũtse ake kira Dutsen Sharp, kanta jari na uku mil na laka yadudduka.

Karkashin kasa da ruwa

A watan Afrilu, da son sani Rover samu shaidar ruwa ruwa a kasa da surface na duniyar Mars, da kuma rubuce yanayin zafi a cikin guguwa bakin dutse da suke kawai dama ga ruwa brine. A binciken da shawara cewa Martian ƙasa ne damp da ruwa da za su iya zama ruwa godiya ga mai gishiri, alli perchlorate, abin da rike shi ruwa saukar zuwa game da -70C.

Auroras

Maven masana kimiyya kuma gano cewa, hasken rana da iska halitta kwatankwacin arewacin hasken wuta fadin sararin swaths na duniyar Mars, sa da high-makamashi barbashi da farin ciki wani yanayi zamar masa dole ta Magnetic filin. Mutane zai iya rubuce ganin Martian auroras kamar yadda ja, blue kuma kore launuka a bayyane bakan, amma Nasa ba tukuna san abin da fitilu zai yi kama, tun da tasar rasa kayan aiki don ganin su.

A auroras kuma bayar da shawarar cewa mafi yawan Mars ne buffeted da hasken rana iskõki, rancen shaida ga ra'ayin cewa hasken rana abubuwan gudummawar da asarar yanayi kewaye da duniya. Wasu Magnetic filayen kasance a sassan ɓawon burodi warwatse a kusa da duniya, amma duniya rasa duniya garkuwa da shi sau ɗaya yana.

guardian.co.uk © Guardian News & Kafofin watsa labaru Limited 2010

Da aka buga via da Mai kula News Hay plugin domin WordPress.