Shin cannabis gaske ka runtse ga IQ?

Does cannabis really lower your IQ?

My 'yan bincike ya nuna cewa bambance-bambance wanin cannabis amfani iya haifar da yawa-tattauna disparities a fahimi aiki


Powered by Guardian.co.ukWannan labarin mai taken “Shin cannabis gaske ka runtse ga IQ?” aka rubuta ta hanyar Claire Mokrysz, domin theguardian.com a ranar Alhamis 14th Janairu 2016 15.24 UTC

Ko ko ba ta amfani da cannabis iya haifar da fahimi hanawa ne mai zafi topic na bincike da kuma jama'a sha'awa. Ganin m kafofin watsa labarai da hankali ba to binciken dake bayar da shawarar detrimental effects na cannabis a cognition, kwakwalwa aiki da kuma shafi tunanin mutum da kiwon lafiya, za ka gafarta na tunaninsa shan taba a spliff aka ire-iren su akai-akai Bashing kanka a kai tare da giant bong. Duk da haka, tun da yawa daga cikin aikin to date ne giciye-bangaranci (cewa shi ne, ma'aunai ake dauka kawai a lokaci daya a rayuwar mutum), ba za mu iya sani ko cannabis users dã yi wani daban kafin su fara yin amfani da cannabis. A takaice, muna fuskantar wani classic "kaza ko kwai" matsala.

Cannabis amfani ba ya faruwa a cikin wani injin. Kuma matasa da suka fara yin amfani da cannabis daga wani matashi shekaru za kusan lalle bambanta daga waɗanda suka zai taba kokarin, da shi, ko suka jinkirta har sai sun mazan. The shaida da shawara cewa wadanda suka fara yin amfani da cannabis daga wani matashi shekaru sau da yawa da m barga backgrounds da kuma more halin matsaloli fiye da wadanda ba ta amfani da takwarorina. Matashi cannabis amfani kuma yawanci ke hannu da hannu da wasu miyagun ƙwayoyi amfani da m salon zabi a general. The poorer fahimi yi na cannabis users yiwuwa saboda haka haifar daga wasu dalilai hade da cannabis amfani, maimakon cannabis amfani kanta. Duk da haka shi ne, ba shakka da wuya a sarrafa don duk wadannan wasu dalilai.

To ƙoƙari ya magance wadannan al'amurran da suka shafi, tare da sauran masu bincike daga Jami'ar College London da kuma Jami'ar Bristol (ciki har da Suzi Gage wa runduna wannan blog), Ina da aka hannu a cikin wani sabon binciken, da yiwuwar m binciken. Amfani da bayanai a kan 2235 matasa tattara a matsayin wani ɓangare na "Bani da 90 ta" Gungu daga South West England, mu dubi dangantaka tsakanin sau nawa wani ruwaito ya kasance cannabis da shekaru 15, kuma su yi a kan wani IQ gwajin kammala a wannan shekara. Mahimmanci da matasa ya kuma dauki wani IQ gwajin lokacin da suke da 8 shekara (da wani daga gare su sun yi amfani da cannabis), saboda haka za mu iya magance da "kaza ko kwai" matsala.

Da farko duba mu sakamakon nuna cewa wadanda matasa da suka yi amfani da cannabis yi muni a kan su matashi IQ gwaje-gwaje, bayan lissafin ga 'baseline' IQ a 8 shekara. Ko waɗanda suka kawai amfani cannabis dintsi sau sha wajen 2 IQ maki ƙananan fiye da wanda ya taba yi kokarin cannabis. Duk da haka, mu kuma lura da cewa matasa da suka yi amfani da cannabis suna da mafi kusantar su yi amfani da wutar taba sigari, barasa da kuma sauran kayan haram kwayoyi- kuma dukkan wadannan abubuwan wato annabta ƙananan matashi IQ scores. Mai strikingly mun ga cewa cannabis users su ma fiye da wata ila ya zama taba taba smokers- 84% wadanda a heaviest cannabis amfani kungiyar (suka ruwaito ya kasance cannabis akalla 50 sau da shekaru 15) ya kyafaffen sigari fiye da 20 sau a rayuwarsu, idan aka kwatanta da m 5% waɗanda suka taba amfani da cannabis.

Idan muka ilimin kididdiga gyara na wadannan bambance-bambance a rates sauran abu amfani, tare da wasu dalilai ciki har da yara halin matsalolin da hankulansu lafiya cututtuka, cannabis amfani ba annabta ƙananan IQ scores. Bayan wannan gyara ko mu heaviest rukuni na cannabis users ya annabta IQ scores ba daban-daban ga waɗanda suka taba yi kokarin cannabis. Mun kuma gudu a irin wannan bincike ya kalli wannan matashi ta makaranta GCSE maki, abin da suka zauna a shekaru 15/16. A binciken sun kama mu IQ binciken- yayin cannabis users samu ƙananan maki a GCSE (kwatankwacin 2 maki ƙananan a daya batu), da zarar mun dauki account wadannan sauran related dalilai cannabis amfani ba annabta muni makaranta yi.

It seems therefore that there is something else about these two groups of teenagers (those who had used cannabis by age 15 and those who had not) that is responsible for the differences in IQ and school grades, rather than their cannabis use, though it’s not clear what from our study. Although cigarette smoking was identified as a potentially important factor, we clearly can’t know from this type of study whether it actually causes lower IQ and school performance, and there is little evidence elsewhere to suggest this is the case.

While this may sound like great news for those 15% na 15-24 year old Europeans who have used cannabis in the past year, the take home message is sadly not so clear cut. This is just one study from one cohort in one area of England, and as authors of the paper we are the first to acknowledge the limitations of this work, including the young age of the participants when we measured IQ, and the relatively moderate levels of cannabis use.

A well-publicised study from 2012 suggested that cannabis use starting in adolescence and persisting into mid-life “is” related to IQ decline. So how do these potentially opposing findings fit together? The key difference between da 2012 binciken and ours is the type of cannabis users included in the study. Our heaviest using teenagers had been using cannabis for approximately 2 shekaru, and had used cannabis at least 50 times each (ko da yake 57% of this group reported having used cannabis at least 100 sau). a cikin 2012 study those who showed the most dramatic IQ decline had been persistent cannabis users from adolescence until their late 30’s, and had been diagnosed with cannabis addiction at numerous points in their life. So it’s possible that cannabis addiction, rather than cannabis use per se, is related to lower IQ, or that persistent heavy cannabis use throughout your lifetime can to have these negative effects.

Our study is by no means definitive, but it does highlight that we should all be more cautious when jumping to conclusions about the harms of a drug before we have strong evidence either way. Overly forceful conclusions about the potential negative effects of cannabis are unscientific and based on an incomplete evidence base. This can lead to the unfair marginalisation of teenagers who use cannabis, which is the last thing we would want, given that this group is likely to include some of the most vulnerable in society.

Claire Mokrysz is a PhD student at University College London investigating whether teenagers are particularly susceptible to harm from cannabis and alcohol use.

guardian.co.uk © Guardian News & Kafofin watsa labaru Limited 2010