A sanyaya Way to Kimanta Brain Surgery Marasa lafiya

A Cooler Way to Evaluate Brain Surgery Patients

Wani sabon Hanyar kimantawa neurosurgical marasa lafiya bayar da sabo bayani a kan yadda kwakwalwa samar magana


Powered by Guardian.co.ukWannan labarin mai taken “A sanyaya hanyar kimanta kwakwalwa tiyata marasa lafiya” aka rubuta ta hanyar Mo Costandi, domin theguardian.com a ranar Jumma'a 26th Fabrairu 2016 09.30 UTC

Masu bincike a cikin U.S. sun ɓullo da wani sabon da kuma inganta dabara domin zana taswira da kuma kare kwakwalwa aiki a m marasa lafiya game da sha neurosurgery - by sanyaya kananan, sarrafa kwakwalwa yankuna na dan lokaci soke su gudanar da map cikin yankunan da ake bukata domin kalmar samuwar kuma lokaci na magana. Sun bayyana su hanya, da kuma bayyana yadda amfani da shi don gudanar da bincike a cikin kwakwalwa sunadaran muhimmi samar da magana da harshen, a cikin wani sabon binciken kawai aka buga a mujallar Neuron.

Stories game da mutanen da suka kasance farkakku a lokacin kwakwalwa tiyata bayyana a kai a kai a cikin taro kafofin watsa labarai. A 2008, misali, mahara labarai kantuna ya ruwaito cewa almara Bluegrass makadi Eddie Adcock ba kawai zauna m, amma kuma ya buga wa banjo, a yayin da uku-da-a-rabi aiki da su bi a hannun tremor. Kuma karshe Disamba, akwai m rahotanni game da Spanish jazz makadi Carlos Aguilera, wanda ya buga wa saxophone a ko'ina a 12-hour aiki don cire a kwakwalwa ƙari.

Irin wannan hanyoyin sukan bayyana a matsayin "abin mamaki,"" Sauyi,"kuma, wani lokacin, "Banmamaki." A gaskiya, likitoci an aiki a kan tarar da kwakwalwarmu da m marasa lafiya kusan shekara ɗari daya: Hanyar da aka ɓullo da a 1920s da soma Kanad neurosurgeon Wilder Penfield, a matsayin hanyar locating da mahaukaci kwakwalwa nama haddasa farfadiya seizures.

Penfield amfani wayoyin a ta da surface da marasa lafiya 'tarar da kwakwalwarmu, kuma da gangan kiyaye su farkakku ne, a lokacin tiyata domin su iya bayar da rahoton sakamakon da ruri a mayar da shi. By stimulating da yankunan da ke kusa da mahaukaci nama, ya iya gane nama haifar da seizures yayin da kuma kayyade abin da na kewaye da yankunan su ne da muhimmanci ga muhimmanci ayyuka kamar magana, kuma motsi. Ga hanya, ya iya cire mahaukaci nama ba tare da haddasa wani tabbaci lalacewa.

Penfield ta Hanyar cortical ruri har yanzu amfani da yadu a yau, amma, da ɗan Abin mamaki, iya kanta fararwa farfadiya seizures. Sabuwar Hanyar daukawa babu irin wannan hadarin. bunƙasa Michael Long na New York University ta Langone Medical Center da takwarorinsa, shi ya gina a kan wani a baya hanya da amfani sanyaya bincike to nazarin kwakwalwa circuitry alhakin song samar a zebra kananan tsuntsaye.

Long da abokan aiki ya yi amfani da irin wannan sanyaya na'urar a kan 16 marasa lafiya da ake kimanta for neurosurgical gudanar da su bi su da miyagun ƙwayoyi-resistant epilepsy. Tare da marasa lafiya a karkashin gida m, da masu bincike sun yi amfani da na'ura don kwantar 42 mai hankali kwakwalwa yankuna, duk abin da aka a baya implicated magana samar, by game 10°C kowane. A halin yanzu, da marasa lafiya aka tambaye su karanta kwanakin mako, ko mai sauki layi na lambobi da, sabõda haka, maganarsu aiki za a iya kiyasta yayin kowane yanki da aka sanyaya.

Sanyaya interrupts salula aiki, da kuma a wasu lokuta, da masu bincike gano cewa, shi ya tsoma baki tare da marasa lafiya 'ikon magana, slowing kuma blurring maganarsu. Wannan sakamako ne kawai wucin gadi, duk da haka - kwakwalwa aiki koma al'ada nan da nan bayan da sanyaya na'urar da aka cire daga kwakwalwa, da dukan 16 marasa lafiya baya dawo dasu daga aiki ba tare da wani undesired illa ko wasu rikitarwa.

Sakamakon tabbatar da baya binciken cewa kwakwalwa yankunan da hannu a jawabin samar da ake kagaggun tsare zuwa hagu rabin ƙwalo, kuma sun kuma samar da sabon basira yadda kwakwalwa samar magana. musamman, sanyaya wani ɓangare na hagu motor bawo ƙẽƙasasshen ingancin da marasa lafiya 'jawabin, alhãli kuwa sanyaya na Broca ta Area a bar boko lobe canza da lokaci da jawabin.

Wadannan sakamakon ya nuna cewa motor bawo da shugabantar da tsoka ƙungiyoyi a lebe da kuma harshe da ake bukata domin zaben magana, alhãli kuwa Broca ta Area ake bukata domin aiwatar da wadannan ƙungiyoyi a dace jerin.

"Wannan binciken ya tabbatar da cewa sanyaya ne mai hadari da tasiri wajen kare muhimmanci kwakwalwa cibiyoyin lokacin neurosurgery," ya ce Long. "[Yana] har ila yau, wakilci[s] manyan gaba a fahimtar da matsayin taka leda da yankunan da kwakwalwa wanda taimaka mana samar da kalmomi. "

reference

Long, M. A., et al. (2016). Aikin fata na Cortical Labaran tamkar Jawabin lokaci da sanarwa akan abinda. Neuron 89: 1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2016.01.032 [Abstract]

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