અમે બધા વસ્તુઓ ભૂલી – but are the things that we do remember as accurate as we’d like to believe?
Mind gamers: How good do you reckon your memory is? We might forget things from time to time, but the stuff we do remember is pretty accurate, અધિકાર? The trouble is, our memory isn’t as infallible as we might want to believe, and you can test this for yourself using the simple experiment below.
Try it yourself
Take a look at the three lists above, and read each word for about a second.
All done? ગ્રેટ.
Now we’re going to do a simple recognition test – below is another list of words for you to look at. Without looking back, note down which of them appeared in the three lists you just scanned. No cheating!
ટોચના – Chair – સ્લીપ – Seat – Slow – મજબૂત – Yawn – Mountain – Sweet
If you said that top, seat અને yawn were in the lists, you’re spot on. તેવી જ રીતે, if you think that ધીમી, મીઠી અને મજબૂત didn’t appear anywhere, you’re also right. What about chair, mountain અને sleep છતાં? They sound like they should have been in the lists, but they never made an appearance. Some of you may have spotted this, but a lot of people tend to say, with a fair amount of certainty, that the words were present.
False recognition and the DRM paradigm
This experiment comes from a classic 1995 અભ્યાસ by Henry L. Roediger and Kathleen McDermott at Rice University in Texas. Based on earlier work by James Deese (hence the name Deese-Roediger-McDermott, or DRM, paradigm), participants heard a series of word lists, which they then had to recall from memory. After a brief conversation with the researcher, the participants were then given a new list of words. Critically, this new list contained some words that were associated with every single item on each of the initial lists – for example, જ્યારે sleep doesn’t appear on list 3 ઉપર, it’s related to each word that does appear (bed, બાકીના, tired, અને તેથી પર).
આગામી, the participants had to say how confident they were that the words in the new list had appeared previously. Roediger and McDermott’s results showed that people claimed to recognise the associated words (જેમ sleep) about as often as words that were actually presented on the list – around 85% સમય. બીજા શબ્દો માં, people were claiming to remember things, fairly confidently, that hadn’t happened.
There are a number of reasons why this effect occurs. One suggestion put forward by Roediger and McDermott relates to something known as associative processes; because all of the words in a given list are related to each other, they are more likely to activate related words in our memory. Word stem completion tasks help to highlight this point. If I say the word ‘beer’, and ask you to fill in the blank here:
_ I N E
You might be more likely to say W, even though D, F, L and M would all be perfectly acceptable. That’s because beer and wine are related concepts, and saying one makes the other easier to recall in memory.
અલબત્ત, other factors come into play with the DRM paradigm. તે પણ થાય શકે છે, કારણ કે તમે આ શબ્દ વિચારી રહ્યાં છો, sleep તમે સંબંધિત યાદી પણ વાંચી ત્યારે, જે તરફ દોરી જાય છે તમે ભૂલથી લાગે છે કે તમે ખરેખર હતી પાછળથી શબ્દ વાંચી. અનુલક્ષીને છતાં, ખોટા માન્યતા અભ્યાસ એક વાત સ્પષ્ટ કરી: અમારા યાદદાસ્ત હંમેશા ચોક્કસ એમ અમે માનીએ છીએ કરવા માંગો છો નથી.
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