Fáilte go dtí An Lucht Oibre robot-Bhunaithe

Welcome to The Robot-Based Workforce

Ó waitstaff chun companions agus taighdeoirí dlí cúram, Is é an todhchaí an oibrí meaisín anseo. Ach nuair nach bhfuil daoine a fhágáil


Powered by Guardian.co.ukTAirteagal seo dar teideal “Fáilte go dtí an lucht oibre robot-bhunaithe: Beidh do phost a bheith uathoibrithe freisin?” Bhí scríofa ag Julia Carrie Wong i San Francisco, do An Observer ar an Satharn 19 Márta 2016 14.24 UTC

"Tá sé draíochta íon,"Geallúintí Eatsa.

Ar dtús bialann uathoibriú go hiomlán San Francisco ar, béilí le fáil i cubbies gloine beag, ach 90 soicind tar éis custaiméirí ordú agus íoc ar iPads balla-suite. Tá sé ina eispéireas daonna-níos lú - aon waitstaff, aon airgeadóir, aon duine a fháil d'ordú mícheart agus gan aon duine a tip.

Tá sé chomh maith le cleas buaile.

An nóiméad roimh a léirítear an béile, an scáileán taispeána a fheiceáil-tríd go tosach na cubbies téann dubh do na cúpla soicind nuair a d'fhéadfadh tú a ghabháil radharc na láimhe go Fothaí tú.

Nach bhfuil Eatsa amach go fóill uathoibriú iomlán. Admhaíonn an chuideachta Fostaíonn sé foireann cistin bheag, agus tá fostaí amháin i láthair i os comhair an tí, ceisteanna faoi conas a ordú fhreagairt agus ceisteanna faoi cad atá ar siúl taobh thiar den bhalla na cubbies draíochta dodging. ("Cibé rud a shamhlú duit,"Teases sé.)

Ach an bhialann, a osclaíodh i mí Lúnasa agus tá leathnú cheana féin Los Angeles, Tairgeann le léargas a thabhairt i gcrích go tapa-druidim, i gcás catagóirí iomlán de thascanna a bhí nuair is féidir leis an chúige eisiach daoine a chur i gcrích níos tapúla, saoire, agus níos mó go hiontaofa ag meaisín.

Is é an todhchaí anseo, agus tá aon duine ar phost sábháilte.

Meaisín, obair

"Is féidir liom a fheiceáil dífhostaíocht mais ar na spéire mar a ghlacann an réabhlóid róbataic shealbhú,"A dúirt Noel Sharkey, a emeritus ollamh le róbataic agus hintleachta saorga ag Ollscoil Sheffield sa Ríocht. Sharkey tús le déanaí an Fhondúireacht um róbataic Freagrach chun cabhrú linn a sheachaint ar an "guaiseacha sochaíocha agus eiticiúla a d'fhéadfadh" ó chur i bhfeidhm go forleathan robots uathrialaitheach.

Níl aon rud go háirithe nua mar gheall ar an t-aláram Sharkey Tá sounding. I 2013, Oxford scoláirí Carl Benedikt Frey agus Michael A Osborne rabhadh thart 47% na fostaíochta de Stáit iomlán a bhí i mbaol ríomhairiú, i anailís a rangaithe 702 ngairmeacha ag a n-dóchúlacht deireadh á chur.

telemarketers, cuntasóirí, réiteoirí spóirt, rúnaithe dlí, agus fuarthas amach go raibh cashiers a bheith i measc an chuid is mó dócha a chailleann a bpost, cé dochtúirí, mhúinteoirí réamhscoile, dlíodóirí, ealaíontóirí, chléireach d'fhan réasúnta sábháilte.

I Todhchaí na nGairmeacha, a foilsíodh i 2015, údair Richard Susskind agus a mhac, daniel Susskind, argóint go mbeidh fiú iad siúd gairmeacha traidisiúnta meath agus in ionad "córais atá ábalta".

Úsáideann custaiméir iPads go háit agus íoc as a chuid ordú ag Eatsa, bialann uathoibriú go hiomlán i San Francisco.
Úsáideann custaiméir iPads go háit agus íoc as a chuid ordú ag Eatsa, bialann uathoibriú go hiomlán i San Francisco. Grianghraf: Ramin Talaie don Observer

Na Susskinds mór a thuilleadh a bhaint as an aimsir fháistineach. Samhradh seo caite Seoladh uirlis cúnamh dlíthiúil a dtugtar ROSS, a úsáideann IBM saorga Chliste Super-ríomhaire Watson a ghlacadh ar láimh ar an obair an taighde dlí.

ROSS Intelligence comhbhunaitheoir agus POF Andrew Arruda argóint go bhfuil an uirlis, Is féidir nach mbeidh i mbun obair a bhí ar aon uair amháin uair an chloig i ábhar soicind, Ní baol do phoist ó stop gnólachtaí dlí mór billeála do uair an chloig a chaitear ar thaighde le linn an cúlú Mór. Dúirt sé chomh maith go mbeadh ROSS "rochtain ar an gceartas a mhéadú" trí ionadaíocht dlíthiúil níos inrochtana don 80% na Meiriceánaigh nach bhfuil in acmhainn é.

Fós, ROSS ag déanamh obair a bhí daoine uair amháin íocadh Dollar barr a dhéanamh.

Ar an Máirt, an Irish Times airgeadais tuairisc ar anailís Deloitte a fuarthas amach go raibh an Ríocht Aontaithe caillte cheana 31,000 poist san earnáil dlí a uathoibriú, agus réamh-mheasta go ceann eile 114,000 Bheadh ​​poist a bheith seo chugainn.

Tá sé ag tarlú go léir an-tapa. I 2013, MIT innealtóireacht ollamh John Leonard dúirt an Athbhreithniú Teicneolaíocht MIT go bhfuil "robots simplí in áit daoine" Ní tharlódh a bheo. “The semi-autonomous taxi will still have a driver,” he argued. Inniu, Google’s autonomous cars have traveled more than 1m miles on public streets, and self-driving taxis seem all but inevitable.

Sharkey expects that the service industry will be particularly hard hit. He estimates that by 2018 there will be 35 million service robots “at work”.

Computerized cubbies at Eatsa, San Francisco.
Computerized cubbies at Eatsa, San Francisco. Grianghraf: Ramin Talaie don Observer

A bartending robot named “Monsieur” is already on the market. A hardware store in San Jose, California has a retail associate robot named “Oshbot.” The UK salad bar chain Tossed reportedly announced this month that two outlets in London would have self-service kiosks instead of cashiers. Ar an Déardaoin, Domino’s Australia unveiled a pizza delivery robot in Brisbane.

Some companies seem sensitive to the criticism that they might be taking away people’s jobs.

Ar an Déardaoin, Bloomberg reported that Google is selling Boston Dynamics, the inventor of frighteningly agile robots that it acquired in 2013.

“There’s excitement from the tech press, but we’re also starting to see some negative threads about it being terrifying, ready to take humans’ jobs,” wrote one Google employee in internal emails obtained by Bloomberg.

Micah Green, the founder of Maidbot, a company building robots to clean hotel rooms, emphasizes that “at this stage” the company’s products are “an augmentation, not replacement” of housekeepers.

Other inventors make no bones about their job-replacing intentions.

Just a few miles away from Eatsa another San Francisco startup, Momentum Machines, is building robots that could replace the minions behind the curtain. I 2012, the company debuted a fully automated hamburger making machine, and its website boasts that it has moved on to salads, sandwiches, and “many other multi-ingredient foods”.

“Our device isn’t meant to make employees more efficient,” co-founder Alexandros Vardakostas told Xconomy. “It’s meant to completely obviate them.”

Mabu, the robot friend

I 2014, Stowe Boyd, a self-described post-futurist, threw down the gauntlet. “The central question of 2025 will be: What are people for in a world that does not need their labor, and where only a minority are needed to guide the ‘bot-based economy?’” he asked in a Pew Research Center report.

The answer may lie in the kinds of activities that are frequently unpaid: care work traditionally assigned to women. Computers and robots may be better than humans at manual labor, paperwork, and even logic, but they do not feel, and they cannot empathize.

Ar a laghad, not really.

In a basement office in San Francisco’s Dogpatch neighborhood, Dr Cory Kidd is building a robot whose sole job is to motivate its owners into positive behavioral changes.

Mabu is a desk lamp-sized robot who carries a touchpad on her belly. As a “personal healthcare companion”, she is intended for patients managing chronic diseases. With wide green eyes and pale yellow skin, she could be one of the personified feelings in the Pixar movie Inside Out. And feelings are what she is all about.

For a robot, Mabu doesn’t do anything particularly impressive. She just sits on your bedside table, waking up once or twice a day to hold a conversation with her owner.

Cory Kidd, CEO and founder of Catalia Health, pictured with Mabu.
Cory Kidd, CEO and founder of Catalia Health, pictured with Mabu. Grianghraf: Ramin Talaie don Observer

Those conversations, designed with input from behavioral psychologists and a former Hollywood screenwriter and made possible by artificial intelligence that helps Mabu adapt to an individual’s personality and interests, are intended to “leverage the patient’s own motivation” to follow their treatment plans.

 

Mabu is subtly female in voice and in appearance, a choice Kidd says is based on research that, stereotypically, “women are seen as more helpful and caring”.

Does Mabu care for us? She is plastic, but when Kidd tells her that he does not feel that great, she responds, “You’re carrying a lot on your shoulders,” and dips her head in a gesture that Breathnaíonn like empathy.

Do we care for Mabu? Kidd says that when he has collected her from patients after trials, many have objected. “They say, ‘She’s like a member of the family.’”

She can provide a certain kind of emotional and psychological support that humans might not be able to accomplish effectively. Imagine your partner asking you every single day whether you have taken your pill, and then imagine how long they would remain your partner. (This is why Kidd says, “we’re not replacing any human. I can’t think of a person who would be a healthcare companion.”)

But if Mabu can be better at being human than humans can, what is left for us?

Perhaps only the bearing and rearing of new humans. This is where Noel Sharkey draws the line. I 2008, Sharkey published The Ethical Frontiers of Robotics in the journal Eolaíocht, a paper in which he warned against the development of “child-minding robots” already taking place in Japan and South Korea.

Sharkey has continued to study developments in the field of nanny robots, including some that are already available, such as the “Childcare Robot PaPeRo” from Japan’s Nippon Electric Company (NEC).

“We have already seen the overuse of robots in looking after children,” Sharkey says. “From our detailed analysis of the possibility of long term care of children by robots, we can expect a number of severe attachment disorders that could reap havoc in our society.”

It’s all of our job to prevent that.

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