Cá bhfuil muid ag
Tá an troid in aghaidh ailse a bhí le bheith ar cheann de na dúshláin is mó intleachtúil agus praiticiúil lá atá inniu ann. Céad bliain ó shin, Bhí idirghabhálacha máinliachta le tacaíocht Fhoras na foirmeacha luatha teiripe radaíochta na n-arm ach amháin ar láimh na dochtúirí. Ó shin i leith, ar líon na réabhlóidí tábhachtacha tar éis athrú go.
Ba é an chéad a thabhairt isteach ceimiteiripe, i bhfoirm drugaí a bhí díorthaithe a, ironically, as an ngás mustaird úsáideadh mar arm le linn an chéad chogadh domhanda. Dochtúirí a rinne autopsies ar íospartaigh gáis faoi deara gur bac é roinn cille, agus leaganacha a forbraíodh go chabhraigh chun stop cealla meall ó proliferating. Tháinig na cóireálacha ghnáthamh sna 1950í.
Réir mar a chuaigh an taighde genomic sa 20ú haois, eolaithe úsáid as go bhfuil eolas chun cóireálacha nua a fhorbairt. chun cinn le déanaí tá teiripí spriocdhírithe. Tá siad seo níos sainiúla ina caingean in aghaidh siadaí toisc ghníomhaíonn siad ar spriocanna móilíneacha a bhaineann le cealla ailse ar leith, cé is mó le ceimiteiripe caighdeánach gníomhú ar gach cealla a roinnt go tapa, bídís gnáth nó ailse.
Mar shampla, i thart duine as gach cúigear othair ailse chíche, Tá cealla meall i bhfad ró-de próitéine fáis-chur chun cinn ar a dtugtar HER2 ar a n-dromchla. Tá ailse chíche leis an iomarca de seo próitéine go háirithe ionsaitheach, eolaithe fuarthas amach. Tá líon na ndrugaí, nós Herceptin, Forbraíodh chun díriú ar an próitéine agus bloc an scaipeadh na cealla meall. Tá na teiripí spriocdhírithe anois mar chrann taca sa chath i gcoinne ailse.
Cad iad na fadhbanna móra?
Tá dul chun cinn mór á dhéanamh, ach d'fhéadfadh an fhadhb a teacht chun cinn a bheith airgeadais seachas teicniúil. Is iad na ghlúin nua drugaí á bhforbairt an-daor, ceisteanna inacmhainneachta a ardú.
Tóg an teicneolaíocht fledgling na immunotherapy. bhfuil Cealla ailse saghas handshake rúnda a persuades T-chealla, ina phríomhchuid den chomhlachta cosaintí frith-ghalar, gan a ionsaí orthu. Sna 1990í, eolaithe amach móilín ar T-chealla a bhí mar chuid den handshake. Tá sé ar eolas mar bás cláraithe 1 (CF1) agus, ó fhionnachtain, taighdeoirí ag iarraidh cur isteach ar a fheidhm.
Is iad na drugaí nua nochta in Chicago an tseachtain seo caite mar thoradh ar an obair seo. Trialacha ar othair a bhfuil melanoma chun cinn, a bhfuil ráta báis ard, a tháirgtear cheana féin torthaí a spreagadh, ach eolaithe rabhadh go bhféadfadh go mbeadh tromchúiseach fo-iarsmaí i roinnt othar.
Cá bhfuil muid ag?
Ní néaltrú i ndáiríre galar. Is toradh coinníollacha éagsúla. Is galar Alzheimer an ceann is coitianta de na ach tá daoine eile néaltrú soithíoch agus néaltrú frontotemporal. Gach ceann de na foirmeacha a roinnt airíonna coitianta, áfach. Ina measc caillteanas cuimhne, mearbhall agus pearsantacht athrú.
Cé go bhfuil néaltrú cinnte nach toradh dosheachanta de ag fáil d'aois, an dóchúlacht go dtarlódh a fhorbairt an coinníoll méaduithe gan amhras le haois. Dá bhrí sin, mar a bhí vanquished galair thógálacha sa Ríocht, agus rátaí báis ailse agus croí coinníollacha iachall síos, daoine níos mó agus níos mó a bheith in ann maireachtáil le seanaois. (Tá ionchas saoil sa Ríocht Aontaithe anois 79 d'fhir agus 83 do mhná.)
Inniu, it is calculated that there are now more than 850,000 people with dementia in the UK.
De réir 2025, the number of cases of dementia in the UK is expected to rise to more than 1 milliún. De réir 2050, it is projected to exceed 2 milliún. Freisin, the condition has been found to be particularly common in women. As an 850,000 dementia patients in Britain, 500,000 are female. Mar thoradh, women over 60 are now twice as likely to get dementia as breast cancer.
Scientists are now working on ways to use genetic and stem-cell technologies to understand the detailed causes of the various forms of dementia and, in the long run, to develop drugs that could slow down the loss of faculties in those affected by the condition.
Scientists caution that this aspiration remains a long-term goal and warn there is much work that still needs to be done.
What are the problems?
A key problem for those trying to tackle dementia is a lack of resources. There have been major investments in heart disease and cancer research in recent years and these have helped bring down death rates.
But that has not happened with dementia, said Matthew Norton, head of policy for Alzheimer’s Research UK. “Just look at the figures,"A dúirt sé.
“Total spend in the UK – from charities and the government – on dementia in 2013 was £73.8m. I gcodarsnacht, for cancer, that figure was £503m.” This underfunding means reduced manpower, say campaigners. There are some 3,600 dementia researchers working in the UK –about 19,000 fewer than those working on cancer, even though dementia costs the UK economy more. Mar sin,, prospects of finding treatments to slow or halt the loss of faculties associated with dementia will be limited, say researchers.
Cá bhfuil muid ag?
Over the past 50 bliana, there has been an impressive improvement in mortality rates from cardiovascular disease in Britain. This point was precisely summed up by Peter Weissberg, medical director of the British Heart Foundation. “The foundation was established in 1961, when heart disease was ravaging the country. It caused nearly half of all deaths in the UK in that year.”
With hindsight, it is not hard to see why. Smoking levels were four times higher than today, while eating foods high in saturated fats – whole milk, butter and red meat – was the norm.
Inniu, those foods have been replaced by lower-fat options, vegetable oils, skimmed milk and poultry. We have medicines to reduce blood pressure and cholesterol levels, and it is possible to open blocked or narrowed arteries without major surgery.
Devising drugs to treat damaged hearts suffers from a key problem: they are difficult to test. “We cannot keep cutting patients open to remove heart-tissue samples. That is just not practical or ethical,” said Chris Denning of Nottingham University.
A solution for scientists in recent years has been to turn to the use of stem cells. At Nottingham University researchers have taken cells from patients’ skin and bathed them in nutrients in order to transform them into stem cells, a type of cell that can be turned into any tissue. These cells are then developed into heart cells, which are kept in Petri dishes for testing purposes.
“That means they are ideal for trying new drugs on. It is an incredibly important development,” added Denning.
Other scientists believe that it may be possible to use stem cells to directly repair, damaged hearts in the near future.
What are the problems?
Although medical procedures continue to improve prospects for saving the lives of those who suffer from cardiovascular disease, there are a host of epidemiological issues that threaten to offset these benefits.
Mar shampla, the rate of smoking declined sharply between 1972 agus 1994 but the fall-off has since slowed down. And the prevalence of heavy drinking has not changed substantially since the 1970s. Níos measa, childhood obesity has been increasing in both boys and girls since the mid-1980s, while adult obesity rates are also continuing to rise – as is the incidence of diabetes in the UK. All these factors increase the risk that heart disease mortality rates could rise again in the near future.
Weissberg has warned that these factors “threaten to derail the decreasing trends in heart disease and death rates that we are now experiencing”.
Cá bhfuil muid ag?
Defeating the scourge of infectious disease in the western world is generally attributed to the development of vaccine programmes and antibiotics, although improved sanitation and health education have also been key factors.
“In fact, death rates from tuberculosis, a pernicious killer, had begun to drop by the mid-19th century,” said Carsten Timmermann of Manchester University. “In 1838, there were around 4,000 deaths per million as a result of TB, but this had dropped to around 1,000 ag 1900. Vaccines and antibiotics had nothing to do with that. Go deimhin, it is not clear why the decline occurred at all. But it is also evident that programmes such as the BCG vaccine project had really stopped tuberculosis being a serious killer by the middle of the 20th century.”
In the west, most infectious diseases are now kept at bay. Mar sin féin, the balance is an uneasy one. “In the 1960s, a US surgeon-general was alleged to have claimed that infectious diseases had been completely defeated,” said Jeremy Farrar, who is head of the UK Wellcome Trust.
“The story may be apocryphal but it certainly sums up attitudes at the time. ansin, a couple of decades later, we had the arrival of HIV in the west and a very clear lesson about the ever-present danger of infectious diseases, a can spread very quickly from other parts of the world.”
Freisin, the rise of antibiotic resistance – a result, in part, of overuse – has led to growing fears that one of the west’s key defences against infectious disease may be lost in the near future, unless pharmaceutical companies speed up the development of new versions.
What are the problems?
In an increasingly connected world, it’s more and more difficult to contain infectious diseases. Changes in weather patterns and increased migrations from areas affected by rising sea levels or spreading deserts will also intensify the risk of new diseases or new strains of existing conditions arriving in the west.
“In developing nations, we have replaced the problems of infectious disease with health issues such as diabetes and obesity,” said Farrar. “But in developing nations, they still have major problems with infectious diseases – malaria, TB and HIV, mar shampla – but are also being affected by obesity and diabetes. Countries such as these – Vietnam is a good example – need considerable help from global agencies such as the World Health Organisation. Mar sin féin, these agencies are not getting the support they need from the west any more.”
guardian.co.uk © Caomhnóir Nuacht & Meáin Teoranta 2010