Esaera zaharrak dioenez, begiak leihoak arima sartu dira, sakona emozioak dugun liteke bestela ezkutatu nahi du agerian. zientzia modernoaren arimaren existentzia baztertzeko arren, duela iradokitzen du ez dagoela egia kernel bat da esaera honetan: bihurtzen da, begiak ez bakarrik islatu zer da garunean gertatzen baina baita eragina izan dezaketen gauzak nola gogoratzen dugu eta erabakiak hartzeko.
Gure begiak etengabe mugitzen, eta mugimendu horietako batzuk kontziente kontrolpean dauden bitartean, horietako asko gertatzen Inkontzienteki. Irakurtzen dugunean, adibidez, izeneko oso azkar begi mugimendu multzo bat saccades azkar finkatu duten hitza batetik bestera ondoren egin dugu. Noiz gela bat idatzi dugu, handiago miaketa saccades egin dugu inguruan begiratzen dugu. Ondoren daude txikian, nahigabeko begi-mugimenduak oinez dugun bezala egiten dugu, gure burua mugimendua konpentsatzeko eta gure munduaren ikuspegia egonkortzeko. Eta, ikastaroa, gure begiak dardoak inguruan 'azkarrak begi mugimendua' zehar (REM) loaren fase.
Zer da gaur egun argi eta garbi bilakatu da gure begi mugimendu batzuk benetan agerian daiteke gure pentsamendu prozesua.
iaz argitaratu Ikerketa erakusten ikaslea dilatazioan dago ziurgabetasun maila oso lotuta erabakiak hartzeko garaian: Norbait da gutxiago bere erabakia buruz ziur bada, heightened arousal sentitzen dute, ikasleen eragiten dilate. Begi-aldaketa hori, gainera, agerian utziko ditu zer erabaki-maker bat esatera da: Ikertzaile-talde bat, adibidez, aurki dilatazioan behaketa hori egin denean esanez erabiltzen zuhurra Pertsona bat 'no' delikatua erabakia esatea 'bai' egiteko zorian zegoen iragartzea posible da.
Watching the begiak ere lagun dezakete aurreikusteko zer zenbaki pertsona bat kontuan hartu ditu. Tobias Loetscher eta bere lankideek Zuricheko Unibertsitatean kontrataturiko 12 boluntario eta jarraipena bere begi-mugimenduak oreka galdu zuten bitartean off zerrenda bat 40 zenbakiak.
norabidea eta tamaina partaideen begi mugimendu hori zehaztasunez iragarri kopurua esatera ziren aurrekoa baino handiagoa edo txikiagoa ote zen aurkitu dute - eta zenbat arabera. boluntario bakoitzak begirada desplaza sortu eta eskubidea esan dute kopuru handiago bat besterik aurretik, eta behera eta ezkerrera txikiago bat lehenago. Handiagoa alde batetik shift besteari, zenbakiak artean handiagoa aldea.
Horrek iradokitzen du nolabait lotzen dugu abstraktu zenbakia irudikapen burmuinean mugimendua espazioan. Baina azterketa ez digu esaten zer datorren lehen: kopuru jakin bat pentsatzen ote begi posizio aldaketak eragiten, edo ala begi posizioa gure jarduera mental eragina. In 2013, Suedian ikertzaileek argitaratutako frogak azken hori lanean izan daiteke dela: begi mugimenduak benetan errazteko memoria berreskuratze.
bildu zuten 24 ikasle eta bakoitzak galdetu arretaz aztertu haiei erakutsitako objektuen sail bat ordenagailuko pantaila batean txoko bat. The participants were then told to listen to a series of statements about some of the objects they had seen, such as “The car was facing to the left” and asked to indicate as quickly as possible if each was true or false. Some participants were allowed to let their eyes roam about freely; others were asked to fix their gaze on a cross at the centre of the screen, or the corner where the object had appeared, adibidez.
The researchers found that those who were allowed to move their eyes spontaneously during recall performed significantly better than those who fixed on the cross. Interesgarria, arren, participants who were told to fix their gaze in the corner of the screen in which objects had appeared earlier performed better than those told to fix their gaze in another corner. This suggests that the more closely the participants’ eye movements during information encoding corresponded with those that occurred during retrieval of the information, the better they were at remembering the objects. Perhaps that’s because eye movements help us to recall the spatial relationships between objects in the environment at the time of encoding.
These eye movements can occur unconsciously. “When people are looking at scenes they have encountered before, their eyes are frequently drawn to information they have already seen, even when they have no conscious memory of it,", Dio Roger Johansson, a psychologist at Lund University who led the study.
Watching eye movements can also be used to nudge people’s decisions. One recent study showed – maybe worryingly – that eye-tracking can be exploited to influence the moral decisions we take.
Researchers asked participants complex moral questions such as “Can murder ever be justified?” and then displayed, on a computer screen, alternative answers (“sometimes justifiable” or “never justifiable”). By tracking the participants’ eye movements, and removing the two answer options immediately after a participant had spent a certain amount of time gazing at one of the two options, the researchers found that they could nudge the participants to provide that particular option as their answer.
“We didn’t give them any more information,” says neuroscientist Daniel Richardson of University College London, senior author of study. “We simply waited for their own decision-making processes to unfold and interrupted them at exactly the right point. We made them change their minds just by controlling when they made the decision.”
Richardson adds that successful salespeople may have some insight into this, and use it to be more persuasive with clients. “We think of persuasive people as good talkers, but maybe they’re also observing the decision-making process,", Dio. “Maybe good salespeople can spot the exact moment you’re wavering towards a certain choice, and then offer you a discount or change their pitch.”
The ubiquity of eye-tracking apps for smartphones and other hand-held devices raises the possibility of altering people’s decision-making process remotely. “If you’re shopping online, they might bias your decision by offering free shipping at the moment you shift your gaze to a particular product.”
Horrela, eye movements can both reflect and influence higher mental functions such as memory and decision-making, and betray our thoughts, sinesmenak, and desires. This knowledge may give us ways of improving our mental functions – but it also leaves us vulnerable to subtle manipulation by other people.
“The eyes are like a window into our thought processes, and we just don’t appreciate how much information might be leaking out of them,” says Richardson. “They could potentially reveal things that a person might want to suppress, such as implicit racial bias.”
“I can see eye-tracking apps being used for, Esan, supportive technologies that figure out what phone function you need and then help out,", Gaineratu du, “but if they’re left on all the time they could be used to track all sorts of other things. This would provide much richer information, and raises the possibility of unwittingly sharing our thoughts with others.”
This is an edited version of a feature I wrote for BBC.com/Future, a website covering science, health and technology.
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