Brain Implant Laguntzak elbarria

Brain Implant Helps Paralysed Man

Aitzindaria Neurona saihesbidea ahalbidetzen garunean txip seinaleak bidaltzeko muskuluak eskumuturra eta atzamarrak ere, posible egiteko txartela da mugitu eta play Guitar Hero


Powered by Guardian.co.ukIzeneko artikulu hau “Brain inplantea laguntzen elbarriari berreskuratu zuen eskua kontrol partzial” zen Ian Sample Zientzia editore ek idatzitako, for theguardian.com apirilaren 13an, asteazkena on 2016 17.00 UTC

man 24 urteko bat izan zen istripu bat geldiarazi duela sei urte, bere eskua kontrol batzuk berreskuratu du, seinaleak bidaltzen dituen bere garunean zuzenean muskuluak bere eskumuturra eta atzamarrak mugitzen duten inplantea bat erabiliz.

Neurona saihesbide gisa ezaguna, inplantea ahalbidetzen Ian Burkhart kreditu txartel bat mugitu, jolastu bideo-jokoa, Guitar Hero, eta, besteak beste botila bat picking eta botatzen edukiak ekintzak burutu, telefono bat eskuan duela belarrira eraman, eta kopa bat nahastuz. teknologia etekina lehen pertsona da.

Burkhart, Dublin, Ohio, hondartza oporretan izan zen bere lehenengo urtearen amaieran unibertsitateko ospatzeko denean atean sartu irauliko zion ezkutuko sandbar baten gainean olatu bat sartu zuen. Zen 19, oso independentea, eta inoiz jotzen esaterako, istripu bat dela zion greba liteke behera.

eragina indarrean karraska Burkhart lepo-C5 mailan. Oraindik ere ezin izan zuen bere besoak mugitu neurri batzuk, baina bere eskuak eta hankak ziren Ezertarako. Lagunak bota zion uretatik kanpo eta alarma planteatu. Kasualitatez, off-betebeharra suhiltzaile bat hondartzan zegoen eta paramedikuntzan izeneko.

Burkhart izan lesioaren terapia mediku talde bat Ohio State University-rekin. Hasieratik, itxaropentsu zen mediku teknologia aurrerapenak bere bizi-kalitatea hobetuko litzateke. taldeak esan zuen ikerketa interesa eta parte hartzeko teknologia berrien entsegu prest izan zen.

Ohio Ikertzaileek lortu dute beren eskuak Battelle izeneko ongintzazko bat garatutako Neurona saihesbide bat eta eskaini Burkhart aukera hornitua inplantearen dute. "Hori izan zen milioi dolarrak galdera: ez garuneko kirurgia edo, agian, ez mesede duzu zerbait izan nahi al duzu. Badira arriskuak asko dira,"Esan Burkhart. "Zalantzarik gabe, zerbait denbora luzez kontuan izan nuen. Hala ere, talde guztiak eta denek bilera baten ondoren inplikatutako, Banekien nengoen esku onetan. "

Aurrera joan zen eta zirujau behar bezala tiny txip bat hornitua motor bere burmuineko kortex sartu. Hona, txipa bildu seinale elektrikoak motor cortex zatia eskua mugimenduak kontrolatzen batetik.

motor garunaren kortex txip txiki bat aukeratzen sortu seinale elektriko eskuko mugimendua kontrolatzen duten.
forearm buruzko bereziki egindako mahuka A seinaleak jasotzen motor garunaren kortex txip txiki-txiki bat eskuan mugimendua ahalbidetzen duten bertatik. Argazkia: Ohio State University Medical Center Wexner / Batelle

garuneko jarduera Fuzz da ordenagailu bat elikatzen eta pultsu elektriko zauritu bizkarrezur kablea ekidin dela eta mahuka bat dagoela Burkhart bere forearm daramatzan konektatu bihurtuta. Hortik aurrera, 130 Elektrodoak bidali lekaleak azalaren bidez muskuluak azpian, non eskumuturra eta are bereizi hatz mugimendu kontrolatzen dute. The patterns of the signals are tuned to produce the movements Burkhart thinks about making.

It took time to learn how to use the device. Over 15 hilabete, Burkhart spent up to three sessions a week learning how to control his hand movements.

“Initially we’d do a short session and I’d feel mentally fatigued and exhausted, like I’d been in a six or seven hour exam. For 19 years of my life I took it for granted: I think and my fingers move. But with more and more practise it became much easier. It’s second nature.”

“The first time I moved my hand, I had that flicker of hope knowing that this is something that’s working, I will be able to use my hand again. Oraintxe bertan, it’s only in a clinical setting, but with enough people working on it, and enough attention, it can be something I can use outside of the hospital, at my home and outside my home, and really improve the quality of my life,", Esan zuen.

Burkhart performed the first movements using thoughts alone in 2014, but has since learned more complex actions and more precise control over his hand and fingers. Details of the latest results are published in Nature.

Special software is able to decode Burkhart’s thoughts and convert them into electrical signals in his hand, bypassing the damaged nerves in his spine

“It was an amazing moment for the team,” said Ali Rezai, a neurosurgeon at Ohio State’s Wexner Medical Center, recalling Burkhart’s first hand movements. But at the time, his control allowed for only basic movements. “A few seconds after the amazement, we said OK, we have much more work to do here.” The team set to work on turning the rough movements into precise, useful actions.

Chad Bouton, who helped create the device, said the study marked the first time a person living with paralysis had regained movement using signals recorded from within the brain. “We think this is an important result as we try and pave the way for other patients in the future, not only those with spinal injuries, but also those that have experienced a stroke, and potentially even traumatic brain injury,", Esan zuen.

“We were not sure if this would be possible,” Bouton added. “Not only were we able to find those signals in the brain and decipher them for individual finger movements, but we were able to link those signals to Ian’s muscles and allow that kind of movement to be regained. This is important for daily activities, such as feeding, and having the patient be able to clothe themselves.”

The researchers are now looking at a host of improvements that should make the system more portable and possible to use outside the hospital. Brain signals picked up by the implant could potentially be sent wirelessly to the computer for processing, and onwards to the forearm sleeve to stimulate the muscles. Another improvement could see more electrodes added to the brain chip, so more subtle signals can be detected and passed on to the patient’s muscles.

“Ten years ago we couldn’t do this. Imagine what we can do in another 10,” said Rezai.

Nick Annetta, an electrical engineer on the team, said the team was working to make the system smaller and useful for a broader range of patients. “This could be applied to other motor impairments, not just spinal cord injuries,", Esan zuen. “We think this is just the beginning.”

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