Wissenschaftler haben einen "Atlas des Gehirns" Erstellt

Scientists Have Created an “Atlas of the Brain”

Mit Bildgebung des Gehirns, Wissenschaftler haben eine Anzeige der Karten aufgebaut, wie Wörter und ihre Bedeutung in den verschiedenen Regionen des Gehirns dargestellt werden

Angetrieben durch Guardian.co.ukDieser Artikel mit dem Titel “Neurowissenschaftler schaffen Atlas 'zeigt, wie Worte im Gehirn organisiert” wurde von Ian Probe Wissenschaft Editor geschrieben, für theguardian.com am Mittwoch, 27. April 2016 17.00 Koordinierte Weltzeit

Wissenschaftler haben eine "Atlas des Gehirns" erstellt, die zeigt, wie die Bedeutung von Wörtern in verschiedenen Regionen des Organs angeordnet sind,.

Wie eine bunte Decke über der Rinde gelegt, der Atlas zeigt in Regenbogenfarben, wie einzelne Wörter und die Begriffe können sie vermitteln zusammen in Klumpen von weißen Substanz gruppiert werden.

"Unser Ziel war es, ein Riesen-Atlas zu erstellen, die zeigt, wie ein spezieller Aspekt der Sprache im Gehirn repräsentiert wird, in diesem Fall Semantik, oder die Bedeutung von Wörtern,", Sagte Jack Gallant, Neurowissenschaftler an der University of California, Berkeley.

Kein einzelner Hirnregion hält ein Wort oder ein Konzept. Ein einzelnes Gehirn vor Ort ist mit einer Reihe von verwandten Wörtern assoziiert. Und jedes einzelne Wort leuchtet vielen verschiedenen Gehirn Flecken auf. Zusammen bilden sie Netzwerke, die die Bedeutung jedes Wortes repräsentieren wir verwenden: Leben und die Liebe; Tod und Steuern; Wolken, Florida und BH. Alle Licht ihre eigenen Netze auf.

Wissenschaftler haben eine interaktive Karte zeigt, welche Hirnareale zu hören verschiedene Wörter reagieren erstellt.

Beschrieben als "tour de force" von einem Forscher, der nicht an der Studie beteiligt war, the atlas demonstrates how modern imaging can transform our knowledge of how the brain performs some of its most important tasks. With further advances, the technology could have a profound impact on medicine and other fields.

“It is possible that this approach could be used to decode information about what words a person is hearing, reading, or possibly even thinking,” said Alexander Huth, the first author on the study. One potential use would be a language decoder that could allow people silenced by motor neurone disease or locked-in syndrome to speak through a computer.

To create the atlas, the scientists recorded people’s brain activity while they listened to stories read out on The Moth Radio Hour, a US radio show. They then matched the transcripts of the stories with the brain activity data to show how groups of related words triggered neural responses in 50,000 bis 80,000 pea-sized spots all over the cerebral cortex.

Huth used stories from The Moth Radio Hour because they are short and compelling. The more enthralling the stories, the more confident the scientists could be that the people being scanned were focusing on the words and not drifting off. Seven people listened to two hours of stories each. Per person, that amounted to hearing roughly 25,000 Wörter- und mehr als 3,000 different wordsas they lay in the scanner.

The atlas shows how words and related terms exercise the same regions of the brain. Beispielsweise, on the left-hand side of the brain, above the ear, is one of the tiny regions that represents the word “victim”. The same region responds to “killed”, “convicted”, “murdered” and “confessed”. On the brain’s right-hand side, near the top of the head, is one of the brain spots activated by family terms: “wife”, “husband”, “children”, “parents”.

Each word is represented by more than one spot because words tend to have several meanings. One part of the brain, beispielsweise, reliably responds to the word “top”, along with other words that describe clothing. But the word “top” activates many other regions. One of them responds to numbers and measurements, another to buildings and places. The scientists have created an interactive website where the public can explore the brain atlas.

Strikingly, the brain atlases were similar for all the participants, suggesting that their brains organised the meanings of words in the same way. The scientists only scanned five men and two women, jedoch. All are native English speakers, and two are authors of the study published in Natur. It is highly possible that people from different backgrounds and cultures will have different semantic brain atlases.

Armed with the atlas, researchers can now piece together the brain networks that represent wildly different concepts, from numbers to murder and religion. “The idea of murder is represented a lot in the brain,” Gallant said.

Using the same haul of data, the group has begun work on new atlases that show how the brain holds information on other aspects of language, from phonemes to syntax. A brain atlas for narrative structure has so far proved elusive, jedoch. “Every time we come up with a set of narrative features, we get told they aren’t the right set of narrative features,” said Gallant.

Uri Hasson, a neuroscientist at Princeton University, praised the work. Unlike many studies that looked at brain activity when an isolated word or sentence was spoken, Gallant’s team had shed light on how the brain worked in a real-world scenario, er sagte. The next step, er sagte, was to create a more comprehensive and precise semantic brain atlas. Letztlich, Hasson believes it will be possible to reconstruct the words a person is thinking from their brain activity. The ethical implications are enormous. One more benign use would see brain activity used to assess whether political messages have been effectively communicated to the public. “There are so many implications, and we are barely touching the surface,", Sagte er.

Lorraine Tyler, a cognitive neuroscientist and head of the Centre for Speech, Language and the Brain at Cambridge University said the research was a “tour de force in its scope and methods”. But the brain atlas in its current form does not capture fine differences in word meanings. Take the word “table”. It can be a member of many different groups, says Tyler. “It can be something to eat off, things made of wood, things that are heavy, things having four legs, non-animate objects, usw. This kind of detailed semantic information that enables words to be used flexibly is lost in the analysis,", Sagte sie. “While this research is path-breaking in its scope, there is still a lot to learn about how semantics is represented in the brain.”

guardian.co.uk © Guardian News & Media Limited 2010

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