Brain Implant Hjælper Paralysed Man

Brain Implant Helps Paralysed Man

Banebrydende neurale bypass tillader chip i hjernen til at sende signaler til musklerne i håndled og fingre, gør det muligt at knalde et kort og spille Guitar Hero


Drevet af Guardian.co.ukDenne artikel med titlen “Brain implantat hjælper lammet mand genvinde delvis kontrol af hans hånd” blev skrevet af Ian Sample Science redaktør, for theguardian.com onsdag 13 april 2016 17.00 UTC

En 24-årig mand, der var lammet i en ulykke for seks år siden har genvundet en vis kontrol af hans hånd ved hjælp af et implantat, der sender signaler fra sin hjerne direkte til de muskler, der bevæger hans håndled og fingre.

Kendt som en neural bypass, implantatet giver Ian Burkhart at knalde et kreditkort, spille videospil, Guitar Hero, og udføre handlinger såsom picking up en flaske og hælde indholdet, holder en telefon til øret, og omrøring af en kop. Han er den første person til at drage fordel af teknologi.

Burkhart, fra Dublin, Ohio, var på en strand ferie for at fejre afslutningen af ​​hans første år i college, da han dykkede ind i en bølge, der dumpede ham på en skjult sandbanke. Han var 19, ekstremt uafhængig, og havde aldrig overvejet, at en sådan ulykke kunne slå ham ned.

Den kraft af virkningen knækkede Burkhart hals på C5-niveau. Han kunne stadig bevæge armene til en vis grad, men hans hænder og ben var ubrugelige. Venner trak ham op af vandet og slog alarm. Tilfældigt, en off-duty brandmand var på stranden og kaldte paramedicinere.

Burkhart havde terapi til skade med et team af læger ved Ohio State University. Fra starten, Han håbede, at fremskridt inden for medicinsk teknologi ville forbedre hans livskvalitet. Han fortalte holdet han var interesseret i forskning og villig til at deltage i forsøg med nye teknologier.

De Ohio Forskerne fik deres hænder på et neuralt bypass udviklet af en velgørende organisation kaldet Battelle og tilbød Burkhart chancen for at få implantatet monteret. "Det var den million dollar spørgsmålet: vil du have en hjerneoperation eller noget, der kan ikke gavne dig. Der er en masse risici,"Sagde Burkhart. "Det var helt sikkert noget jeg skulle overveje i temmelig lang tid. Men efter et møde med alle holdet og alle involverede, Jeg vidste, jeg var i gode hænder. "

Han gik videre og kirurger behørigt monteret en lille computerchip i den motoriske hjernebark af hans hjerne. Her, chippen plukket elektriske signaler fra den del af den motoriske hjernebark, der styrer håndbevægelser.

En lille chip i motoren cortex i hjernen opfanger elektriske signaler, der styrer håndbevægelse.
Et specielt fremstillet muffe på underarmen modtager signaler fra en lille chip i motoren cortex i hjernen, der muliggør håndbevægelse. Foto: Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center / Batelle

Den fuzz af hjerneaktivitet føres ind i en computer og omdannes til elektriske impulser, der omgår den forurettede rygmarven og forbindelse til en manchet, som Burkhart bærer på sin underarm. Derfra, 130 elektroder sende impulser gennem huden til musklerne under, hvor de kontrollerer håndled og endda separate fingerbevægelser. The patterns of the signals are tuned to produce the movements Burkhart thinks about making.

It took time to learn how to use the device. Over 15 måneder, Burkhart spent up to three sessions a week learning how to control his hand movements.

“Initially we’d do a short session and I’d feel mentally fatigued and exhausted, like I’d been in a six or seven hour exam. For 19 years of my life I took it for granted: I think and my fingers move. But with more and more practise it became much easier. It’s second nature.”

“The first time I moved my hand, I had that flicker of hope knowing that this is something that’s working, I will be able to use my hand again. Lige nu, it’s only in a clinical setting, but with enough people working on it, and enough attention, it can be something I can use outside of the hospital, at my home and outside my home, and really improve the quality of my life,"Sagde han.

Burkhart performed the first movements using thoughts alone in 2014, but has since learned more complex actions and more precise control over his hand and fingers. Details of the latest results are published in Natur.

Special software is able to decode Burkhart’s thoughts and convert them into electrical signals in his hand, bypassing the damaged nerves in his spine

“It was an amazing moment for the team,” said Ali Rezai, a neurosurgeon at Ohio State’s Wexner Medical Center, recalling Burkhart’s first hand movements. But at the time, his control allowed for only basic movements. “A few seconds after the amazement, we said OK, we have much more work to do here.” The team set to work on turning the rough movements into precise, useful actions.

Chad Bouton, who helped create the device, said the study marked the first time a person living with paralysis had regained movement using signals recorded from within the brain. “We think this is an important result as we try and pave the way for other patients in the future, not only those with spinal injuries, but also those that have experienced a stroke, and potentially even traumatic brain injury,"Sagde han.

“We were not sure if this would be possible,” Bouton added. “Not only were we able to find those signals in the brain and decipher them for individual finger movements, but we were able to link those signals to Ian’s muscles and allow that kind of movement to be regained. This is important for daily activities, such as feeding, and having the patient be able to clothe themselves.”

The researchers are now looking at a host of improvements that should make the system more portable and possible to use outside the hospital. Brain signals picked up by the implant could potentially be sent wirelessly to the computer for processing, and onwards to the forearm sleeve to stimulate the muscles. Another improvement could see more electrodes added to the brain chip, so more subtle signals can be detected and passed on to the patient’s muscles.

“Ten years ago we couldn’t do this. Imagine what we can do in another 10,” said Rezai.

Nick Annetta, an electrical engineer on the team, said the team was working to make the system smaller and useful for a broader range of patients. “This could be applied to other motor impairments, not just spinal cord injuries,"Sagde han. “We think this is just the beginning.”

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