Наватарская нейронавая абводнай дазваляе чып у мозг пасылаць сігналы цягліц запясці і пальцаў, што робіць магчымым красці карту і гуляць Guitar Hero
Гэты артыкул пад назвай “Мозг імплантата дапамагае паралізаваны чалавек вярнуць частковы кантроль над яго рукой” была напісана Янам навуковы рэдактар Узор, для theguardian.com ў сераду 13-га красавіка 2016 17.00 Універсальны Глабальныя ЧАС
24-гадовы мужчына, які быў паралізаваны ў выніку няшчаснага выпадку шэсць гадоў таму аднавіў некаторы кантроль над яго рукой з дапамогай імплантата, які пасылае сігналы ад мозгу непасрэдна ў мышцы, якія перамяшчаюць яго запясце і пальцы.
Вядомы як нейронавыя шунтавання, імплантат дазваляе Ian Burkhart красці крэдытнай карты, гуляць у відэагульні, Guitar Hero, і выконваць такія дзеянні, як збіранне бутэльку і разліваць змесціва, трымаючы тэлефон да вуха, і мяшанні кубак. Ён з'яўляецца першым чалавекам, каб атрымаць выгаду з тэхналогіі.
Burkhart, з Дублін, Агаё, быў на адпачынак на пляжы, каб адсвяткаваць канец яго першага года ў каледжы, калі ён нырнуў у хвалю, што скідалі яго на схаваным касе. ён 19, надзвычай незалежныя, і ніколі не лічыў, што такая аварыя можа ўдарыць яго ўніз.
Сіла ўдару пстрыкнуў шыю Burkhart ў на ўзроўні С5. Ён усё яшчэ мог рухаць рукамі ў нейкай ступені, але яго рукі і ногі былі бескарысныя. Сябры выцягнулі яго з вады і падняў трывогу. Выпадкова, не зусім доўг пажарным быў на пляжы і называецца фельчараў.
Burkhart меў тэрапію траўмы з камандай лекараў у Універсітэце штата Агаё. З самага пачатку, Ён выказаў надзею, што дасягненні ў галіне медыцынскай тэхнікі дазволіць палепшыць яго якасць жыцця. He told the team he was interested in research and willing to take part in trials of new technologies.
The Ohio researchers got their hands on a neural bypass developed by a charity called Battelle and offered Burkhart the chance to have the implant fitted. “That was the million dollar question: do you want to have brain surgery or something that may not benefit you. There are a lot of risks,” said Burkhart. “It was certainly something I had to consider for quite some time. But after a meeting with all the team and everyone involved, I knew I was in good hands.”
He went ahead and surgeons duly fitted a tiny computer chip into the motor cortex of his brain. Вось, the chip picked up electrical signals from the part of the motor cortex that controls hand movements.
The fuzz of brain activity is fed into a computer and converted into electrical pulses that bypass the injured spinal cord and connect to a sleeve that Burkhart wears on his forearm. From there, 130 electrodes send the pulses through the skin to the muscles beneath, where they control wrist and even separate finger movements. The patterns of the signals are tuned to produce the movements Burkhart thinks about making.
It took time to learn how to use the device. На 15 месяцы, Burkhart spent up to three sessions a week learning how to control his hand movements.
“Initially we’d do a short session and I’d feel mentally fatigued and exhausted, like I’d been in a six or seven hour exam. Для 19 years of my life I took it for granted: I think and my fingers move. But with more and more practise it became much easier. It’s second nature.”
“The first time I moved my hand, I had that flicker of hope knowing that this is something that’s working, I will be able to use my hand again. прама цяпер, it’s only in a clinical setting, but with enough people working on it, and enough attention, it can be something I can use outside of the hospital, at my home and outside my home, and really improve the quality of my life,"Сказаў ён.
Burkhart performed the first movements using thoughts alone in 2014, but has since learned more complex actions and more precise control over his hand and fingers. Details of the latest results are published in Прырода.
“It was an amazing moment for the team,” said Ali Rezai, a neurosurgeon at Ohio State’s Wexner Medical Center, recalling Burkhart’s first hand movements. But at the time, his control allowed for only basic movements. “A few seconds after the amazement, we said OK, we have much more work to do here.” The team set to work on turning the rough movements into precise, useful actions.
Chad Bouton, who helped create the device, said the study marked the first time a person living with paralysis had regained movement using signals recorded from within the brain. “We think this is an important result as we try and pave the way for other patients in the future, not only those with spinal injuries, but also those that have experienced a stroke, and potentially even traumatic brain injury,"Сказаў ён.
“We were not sure if this would be possible,” Bouton added. “Not only were we able to find those signals in the brain and decipher them for individual finger movements, but we were able to link those signals to Ian’s muscles and allow that kind of movement to be regained. This is important for daily activities, such as feeding, and having the patient be able to clothe themselves.”
The researchers are now looking at a host of improvements that should make the system more portable and possible to use outside the hospital. Brain signals picked up by the implant could potentially be sent wirelessly to the computer for processing, and onwards to the forearm sleeve to stimulate the muscles. Another improvement could see more electrodes added to the brain chip, so more subtle signals can be detected and passed on to the patient’s muscles.
“Ten years ago we couldn’t do this. Imagine what we can do in another 10,” said Rezai.
Nick Annetta, an electrical engineer on the team, said the team was working to make the system smaller and useful for a broader range of patients. “This could be applied to other motor impairments, not just spinal cord injuries,"Сказаў ён. “We think this is just the beginning.”
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